1: Crown Agents, watermark on stamps of the British Commonwealth.
2: overprint on stamps of Colombia, sold in Canada for SCADTA airline mail to Cuba.
3: Caisse d’Amortissement, (Fr.) overprint / surcharge on French semipostal, to reduce national debt.
4: auction firm abbreviation for Commonwealth of Australia.
5: USPS abbreviation for California.
6: Correspondance de l’Arrondissement (Fr.) official mail, 1836-38.
7: auction abbreviation for catapult mail.
C.A.B.: Condetta Antonio Bissoni, Venetian, 1732-33.
Cabecera de Hoja: (Sp.) heading or top marginal inscription of a stamp sheet.
Cabeza del Buey: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Cabezones: (Sp.) “Big Heads” term for stamps of Spain, the “Franco Head” issues after 1955.
Cabinda: part of the People’s Republic of Angola; 1894-1920: known as Portuguese Congo when it had its own stamps, 1920: used stamps of Angola; see Portuguese Congo.
Cabinet Noir: (Fr.) black closet, censorship of mail in 16th century France.
Cabinettstück: (Ger.) very fine copy.
Cabo Blanco: see Rio de Oro.
Cabo de Buena Esperanza: (Sp.) Cape of Good Hope.
Cabo Delgado: bogus, Nyassa Company, Portuguese Mozambique province, 1890s.
Cabo Gracias a Dios: (Sp.) “Cape Thanks to God” overprint on province of Nicaragua, 1904-09; 1905: first stamps issued, “Cabo,” “C,” “Costa Atlantica” overprints to prevent currency manipulation, own stamps required because currency was based on silver, while rest of Nicaragua used paper money used to fill dealers’ orders, never regularly issued or used, 1907: overprinted “Costa / Atlantica / C,” first official stamps used overprint “Cabo,” 1909: overprinted “C / Dpto.Zelaya,” Zelaya, province of Nicaragua required separate stamps due to currency differences, see Nicaragua, Zelaya.
Cabo Jubi: surcharge on stamps of Rio de Oro, for Cape Juby, 1916; see Cape Juby.
Cabo Juby: overprint on stamps of Rio de Oro, Spain (1919-33), Spanish Morocco, (1934-48) for Cape Juby; see Cape Juby.
Cabo Verde: inscription on stamps of Spanish Administration, Portuguese Africa, Cape Verde Islands; see Cape Verde.
Cabra: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Cabus Publicus: Roman postal service, app. 250 BC.
CAC: Chapter Activities Committee, American Philatelic Society.
Caceres: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Cach, Cht: auction abbreviation for cachet(ed).
Caches: overprint on postage dues of France and French Colonies; for use in French India on postage dues.
Cachet: 1: a rubber stamp or printed impression on an envelope which describes the event for which the envelope was mailed; cachets are used for first days of issue, first flights, naval events, stamp exhibitions, etc. 2: rubber stamp or seal, not postal. 3: small marks made by dealers, experts on backs of stamps as marks of authenticity or identification. 4: can be privately applied or officially applied by a post office; also known as “Signum.”
Cachet à Date: (Fr.) date stamp.
Cachet à Date Circulaire: (Fr.) circular date stamp.
Cachet à Main: (Fr.) handstamp, a hand-held device for printing that is struck on an ink pad, and then applied to paper.
Cachet au Dos: (Fr.) backstamp; postmark applied to back of incoming mail to show date and time of receipt at the receiving post office.
Cachet Circulaire: (Fr.) circular cancellation.
Cachet de Bord: (Fr.) on board cancel.
Cachet de Cîre: (Fr.) seal (wax).
Cachet de Fantaisie: (Fr.) fancy cancellation.
Cachet de Fortune: (Fr.) improvised cachet.
Cachet de Garantie: (Fr.) French proprietary stamp guaranteeing that goods with stamp affixed are genuine.
Cachet de la Localite: (Fr.) town postmark.
Cacheted Cover: an envelope bearing a type of decoration, tied in to the design of the stamp or a special event.
Cacheté(e): (Fr.) sealed.
Cachet en Bois: (Fr.) wooden hand stamp.
Cachet en Caoutchouc: (Fr.) rubber handstamp.
Cacheter: (Fr.) to seal.
Cachet Faux: (Fr.) forged cancel.
Cachet Maker: someone who designs and produces cachets, either for sale or for personal use
Cachet Manuel: (Fr.) hand cancel.
Cachet Méchanique: (Fr.) machine cancel.
Cachet Muet: (Fr.) special cancellation, temporary.
Cachet Postale: (Fr.) postmark.
Cachet Rond: (Fr.) circular cancellation.
Cachet Spécial: (Fr.) special cancellation.
Cactées: (Fr.) cactus, thematic subject.
Cacto: (It., Sp.) cactus, thematic subject.
Cactus: US Navy code name during WW II for Guadalcanal Island, British Solomon Islands.
C.a.D.: (Fr.) cachet à date; dated postmark.
Cadaques: bogus issue for Spain, see Evans, Donald.
Cadastre: (Fr.) Registration of Deeds; French Colony revenue inscription.
Caderneta (de selos): (Port.) booklet (of postage stamps).
Cadiz viva Español: Cadiz, city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local semipostal surcharge, Nationalist, Republican forces, 1936-37.
Cadmus Express Co.: local freight firm, serviced Norwich and New York Line steamboats, operated in Boston and New York City, used a label, year unknown.
Cadre: (Fr.) frame, border, the outer decorative border of a stamp design.
Cadres Varies: (Fr.) different ornaments used on same type of stamp.
Cady, Charles L.: sip that carried mail between San Francisco and Fort Sacramento, 1847.
Cafeniu: (Rom.) coffee (color).
Cafeniu-brun: (Rom.) coffee-brown (color).
Cale ferata: (Rom.) railroad, railway.
Cage: a secure, enclosed area in a postal facility, where registered mail and other accountable mail is kept, USPS term.
C.A.H.: Charles A. Hall, BEP employee initials, 1906-1928; see Plate Finisher Initials, Siderographer.
Caicos Islands: Caribbean island chain; part of the Turks and Caicos Islands; 1981, July 24: No.1,1 cent multicolor, Turks and Caicos Islands stamps overprinted “Caicos Islands,” 1985, Dec. 5: last stamp issued, see Turks and Caicos Islands.
Caillie, Rene, explorer: common design on stamps of the French Community of Nations, 1939.
Caimanes: (Fr.) Cayman Islands.
Cairns Colonial Club Resort: cinderella stamp from Cairns, Australia.
Cairo: 1: city in Egypt, Interpostal Seals used 1864-84, see Interpostal Seals. 2: French post offices opened Nov. 1865-March 1875.
Caisse d’Amortissement: (Fr.) Sinking Fund inscription for reduction of national debt, semipostal issue; 1927-31, overprinted / surcharged “CA” 1927.
Caja Postal de Ahorros: (Sp.) Post Office Savings Bank, used as a cancel on letters.
Cala: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Nationalist forces, 1936-37.
Calanas: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Nationalist, 1936.
Calasparra: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Nationalist, 1937.
Calcado en el Reverso: (Sp.) offset design on the back of a stamp due to ink on stamp sheet underneath not being dry.
Calchi, Carchi: island in the Dodecanese Sea, Aegean Islands, between Greece and Turkey; 1912: No.1, 2 centesimi orange-brown, occupied by Italy, 1912-29: overprint, “Carchi,” “Calchi” and “ Karki” on stamps of Italy, 1930, 1932: two sets overprinted with island’s name issued, now part of Greece. 1912-32: stamps of Italy overprinted with names of islands: Calchi , Calimno, Caso, Coo, Fero, Fisso, Nisiro, Patmo, Piscopi, Rhodes, Scarpanto, Simi and Stampalia, 1943-45: German occupation, 1945, June 11: British post offices opened, British Middle East Forces, 1947: British post offices closed, stamps of Greece stamps used since.
Calcio: (It.) football, thematic subject.
Calcograbado: (Sp.) printed by chalcography; a process of engraving on copper or brass, copper-plate engraving.
Caldas: Correos Departmentales (Sp.); local post, Department of Caldas, Colombia, 1931.
Calderillas de Carton, Calderillas de Cartulina: (Sp.) low value coin-like cardboard discs with a postage or fiscal stamp stuck on the front, Spanish coat of arms on the back; 1938-March 31,1939: issued in the civil war Republican Zone until the end of hostilities to help alleviate the shortage of small change.
Caldes de Malavella: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Caldes de Montbui: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Caldes d’Estrac: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Caldey: local post, island off the coast of Wales bearing owner’s name, issued labels, 1973.
Caledonian Courier: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
Caledonian Railway Company: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
Calendar Collector: one who saves a date cancel on a postage stamp for every day of the year.
Calender: paper maker term for passing paper through a series of chilled metal rollers when a smooth surface is desired.
Calf of Man: Great Britain local post carriage label, 400 different labels were printed, 1962-72.
Cali: district in Colombia, 1902.
Calidades Diversas: (Sp.) average, sound copy, not too heavily postmarked.
Calif.: abbreviation for California prior to Zip Code usage.
California: ceded from Mexico Feb. 2, 1848; became a state Sept. 9, 1895.
California City Letter Express Co.: US local post, San Francisco, CA., 1862-66
California Penny Post Co.: US local post, California and Nevada, 1855-59.
California State Telegraph Company: US telegraph stamps issued for use on firm’s telegrams, 1870-75; originated booklets of telegraph stamps.
Calimno: see Calino.
Calino, Calimno: island in the Dodecanese Island, Aegean Sea, between Greece and Turkey; 16th century-post: under Turkish rule, 1912-pre: used stamps of Turkey, 1912: No.1, 2 centesimi orange-brown, overprint / surcharge “Calimno” on stamps of Italy, 1916: used Italian stamps without overprints, 1920: Turkey ceded group to Italy, 1929: Aegean islands’ general issues, 1930,1932: sets overprinted with island’s name, 1943, Sept.: became part of Greece, 1943: reoccupied by German forces, 1945: liberated by Allied forces, 1945, July 4: British Post offices opened as Calymnos, stamps of Britain overprinted “M.E.F.” (Middle East Forces), when islands transferred to Greece, 1947, Mar. 31: British post offices closed; stamps of Greece overprinted “S.D.D.” (Dodecanese Military Occupation), 1947, July: stamps of Greece used; name changed to Kalimnos; see M.E.F.; S.D.D.
Caliphate of Soma: bogus, Artistamp, private label producer.
Calla: caused by overinking of “Callao” on stamps of Peru.
Callao: Peru overprint on stamps of Chile for city of Callao, Chilean Occupation, 1879-82.
Callaway, Kingdom of: bogus, ads overprinted on US stamps for a homecoming celebration.
Callosa de Segura: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Calosc Pocztowa: (Pol.) postage stamp on cover; (postal) entire.
Caluda, Territoires (Katibo): bogus South America issue, see Evans, Donald.
Calve Island: small island off the coast of Mull; Scotland bogus label, 1970s?
CAM: see Contract Air Mail.
Camaguey: see Puerto Principe.
Cambiamento: (It.) alteration.
Cambio: (Sp.) 1: alteration, pocket change, exchange rate. 2: cancels refer to Foreign Section Sorting Offices; see Estafeta de Cambio.
Cambio de Color: (Sp.) change of color, variation.
Cambodge: (Fr.) Cambodia.
Cambodia: southeastern Asia, between Thailand, Vietnam and Laos, aka Kampuchea, Khmer Republic; Official name of postal administration: Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications Currency: 100 cents = 1 piaster, 100 sen = 1 riel (1955) 1863, Aug.11: French protectorate, 1887: incorporated into Union of Indo-China, used stamps of Indo-China, 1936, Nov. 20: stamps of Indo-China inscribed “Cambodge,” 1941: constitutional monarchy established, 1944, Mar.: king proclaimed independence, Kingdom of Cambodia, 1945: French rule restored, 1946, Jan.7: became autonomous kingdom within French Union, 1951, Nov.3: No.1, 10 cent dark blue-green, first stamps after independence, became a member of the French Union, stamps inscribed “Royaume du Cambodge,” 1951, Dec. 21: joined the UPU, 1952, Oct. 20: first semipostal stamp issued, 1953, Apr. 16: first air mail stamp issued, 1953, Nov. 9: independence from France, 1954, Dec.1: overprint “International Commission Cambodia” on stamps of India, 1955, Sep. 25: left French Union to become fully independent, 1957: first postage due stamp issued, 1970, Oct. 9: Khmer Republic proclaimed, 1971, Mar.18: “Republique Khmere” inscribed on stamps, 1975, Apr.: Khmer Republic name changed to Democratic Kampuchea, 1979: name changed to People’s Republic of (Democratic) Kampuchea (Republique Populaire du Kampuchea), 1989: inscription on stamps “Etat du Cambodge,” State of Cambodia, 1993: Kingdom of Cambodia; UN sponsored elections, stamps inscribed “Royaume du Cambodge.”
Cambogia: (It.) Cambodia.
Cambrian Railway: Wales local post.
Cambridge: local posts, United Kingdom; training stamps for practice instruction on how to properly address, frank and post a letter. 1: Queens’ College, 1883. 2: Saint John’s College, 1883-85. 3: Selwyn College, 1882;
Cambridge Emergency P.S.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
Cambridgeport Express Co.: parcel firm serviced Cambridgeport and Boston, Mass.
Camden Emergency P.S.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
Camden, S.C. Paid 5, 10: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Camel Postman: Sudan stamp design, 1897 to 1940.
Camels: 1: carried official dispatches between Army posts in US 1853-56, no markings known. 2: used to carry mail throughout North Africa, Middle East and Central Asia.
Cameo Head: 1: round or oval portrait used as part of a stamp’s design. 2: resembles cameo jewelry; reverse of ivory head, latter is a whitish head on a blued paper background, former shows a bluish head on a more of less whitish paper background; cause of this reverse effect is unknown. 3: early watermark variety on some Great Britain and Colonies blue-paper issues.
Cameo Private P.S.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
Cameos of The Gambia: June 1880; cameo art at its best; cameos featuring Queen Victoria.
Cameroons: western Africa, between Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria; Official name of Postal Administration: Ministère des Postes et Tèlècommunications Currency: 100 pfennig = 1 mark, 12 pence = 1 shilling, 100 centimes = 1 CFA franc 1882, Aug. 10: German Protectorate, Reichs Post office authorized “Postal Steamer;” used stamps of Germany, 1887, Feb. 1: used stamps of Germany at Duala with “Kamerun” cancel, 1897-pre: stamps of standard German designs overprinted “Kamerun,” 1900: No.1, 3 pfennige yellow-brown, “Kamerun” inscription on standard German Colonial design stamps, called forerunner usage, 1900, Nov.: “Kaiser’s” yacht S.M.S. Hohenzollern design series, 1914, Aug.14 -16: captured by Allied forces, 1915, July: Britain surcharge C.E.F. (Cameroons Expeditionary Force) on stamps of Germany, 1915, Nov.10: overprint, “Corps Expéditionnaire Franco-Anglais Cameroun,” on stamps of Gabon whose inscriptions read “Congo Français” and “Afrique Equatoriale,” 1916, May: overprint “Occupation Française du Cameroun” on stamps of French Congo and Middle Congo, 1916, May: overprint “Cameroun Occupation Française” on stamps of Moyen (Middle) Congo, 1920-pre: stamps of Nigeria used in British Cameroons, 1920s: mourning label, yacht and flag design, issued by German stamp dealer Sigmund Hartig, 1921: overprint “Cameroun” on stamps of Middle Congo, 1922: mandated to Britain and France by League of Nations, stamps of Nigeria used in British section, 1925: first definitive design without overprint, first postage due stamp issued, 1938: first semipostal stamp issued, 1940: stamps of Cameroun overprinted “Cameroun Français 27.8.40″ to note Cameroon’s affiliation with DeGaulle’s “Free France” movement, 1941: stamps inscribed “Cameroun” issued by the Vichy government but not sold in Cameroun, 1942: first air mail stamp issued, 1945: British area divided into Northern and Southern Cameroons, 1946: French Cameroons became trust territory, 1960, Jan.1: French area became independent State of Cameroun, stamps inscribed “Etat du Cameroun,” 1960, July 26: joined the UPU, 1960: Northern Cameroons, British area, became part of Nigeria, 1960, Oct. 1: Southern Cameroons overprint on stamps of Nigeria “Cameroons U.K.T.T” (United Kingdom Trust Territory), 1961, Oct. 1: UKTT area and former French Cameroons merged and joined the Cameroun Republic by plebiscite, bilingual inscription “Republique Uni du Cameroun / Republic of Cameroon,” 1963, July 1: first military stamp issued, 1972, May 20: Republic Day, became United Republic of Cameroon, first stamps July 20, 1972.
Cameroons, Southern: see Cameroons.
Cameroun: (Fr.) overprint on stamps of French Congo (1921), Middle Congo (1916) or Gabon (1915); see Cameroons.
Camoscio: (It.) buff (color).
Campaign Cover: postal item mailed by military personnel on active service in wartime, normally marked with endorsements such as “On Active Service” etc.
Campamento M.U.: (Sp.) Milicias Universitarias, camps for national servicemen from universities.
Campaña: (Sp.) military campaign; see Estafeta de Campaña.
Campaña Contra el Cancer: (Sp.) surcharge on stamps of Ecuador for International Union for Control of Cancer, obligatory on all mail from Nov. 23-30, 1938.
Campaña Contra el Paludismo: (Sp.) campaign against malaria inscription on postal tax labels, Mexico; 1939.
Campanile San Marco: (It.) fund raising label for reconstruction of bell tower in Piazza San Marco, Venice, Italy.
Campbell, Duncan and John: organized first postal network in America, for mail to and from Boston to New York, 1693.
Campbell Island: New Zealand civil aviation meteorological station, has own post office, 1941.
Campbell Paterson Catalogue: principal New Zealand stamp catalog.
Campdevanol: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Camp Dewey: label for Junior Naval Reserves, Camp Dewey, CT, about 1910.
Campeche: provisional issues; 1856-1883: overprint used on stamps of Mexico for this district, 1876: No.1, 5 centavos gray-blue and blue, 1876: issued stamps for expulsion of Emperor Maximilian.
Campillo(s): city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Campionaria di Tripoli: with “Poste Italiane,” Tripolitania, on stamps of Libya, 1934.
Campione d’Italia : local post, Italian enclave within borders of Switzerland; 1944, May 20: issued its own stamps for local post mail and mail to Switzerland, inscribed “R.R. Poste Italiane / Comune de Campione,” 1944, May 31: stamps of Italy used, 1944, Sep.7: Swiss stamps issued, 1952: Swiss and Italian stamps used depending on what route the mail is to take.
Campion, J.W & Co.: inscription on US match stamp; see Private Die Proprietary Stamps.
Campo de Concentracion de Prisioneros de Guerra: (Sp.) prisoner of war camp.
Camprodon: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Camvisdar: Indian States term for native revenue officer.
CAN: international postal code for Canada.
Canaa: labels issued in British island for a society project.
Canada: Northern North America, north of the United States; Official name of postal administration: Canada Post Corporation Currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling, 100 cents = 1 dollar (1859) 1763-pre: under French rule, transferred to Britain in 1763, 1763: British North American postal services used, 1784: Canada had its own postmaster general, 1792: Canada-US Postal Convention; postal agreement for transportation of mail from Canada to Great Britain via New York, 1851, Apr. 23: No.1, 3 pence red, first stamps as the Province of Canada, first cancellations were a numeral with four concentric rings; 1858: used two concentric rings as postmark, 1867, July 1: Dominion of Canada formed with provinces of Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, 1871: British Columbia and Vancouver Island became a province of Dominion of Canada, 1873: Prince Edward Island became province of Dominion of Canada, 1875: first registration stamp, 1878, Mar.: first stamp valid throughout Canadian Confederation and new provinces, 1878, July 1: joined the UPU with New Territories, 1898: first special delivery stamp, 1906: first postage due stamp issued, 1915, Mar.15: first war tax stamp, 1928, Sep. 21: first air mail stamp issued, 1942: first air mail special delivery stamp, 1949, Apr.1: Newfoundland joined Canada, used Canadian stamps, 1949: first official, air mail official stamps issued, 1950: first special delivery official stamp issued, 1974, Apr.17: first semipostal stamp issued, 1979: postal code stamp issued; see Canadian Provinces of British Columbia, Vancouver Island, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island.
Canada: Upbeat Goose 7¢; unissued Great Britain cinderella by David Horry, 2001.
Canada; American Revolutionary Army: occupied Montreal from Nov. 13, 1775 to June 1776, setting up an American Post 0ffice.
Canada Official: first day covers produced by the Canadian postal administration.
Canada Postal Strike Label: local post, spoof labels, 1978, 1981.
Canadiana: a postal item related to Canada, issued by a postage issuing authority other than Canada Post; Canada named on the stamp of another nation.
Canadian Airways Ltd.: semiofficial air mail local post, about 50 stamps were used by various private air services to frank mail, 1918-32.
Canadian Army Postal Corp: formed in 1911 to deliver mail to Canadian armed forces.
Canadian Bank Note Company: formed on Nov. 30, 1922, formerly the American Bank Note Company of Canada, produced most of the Canadian stamps.
Canadian Express Co.: regional private mail and parcel firm serviced eastern US and Canadian towns near the border; used corner card and labels; 1865-1921.
Canadian Forces Postal Unit (CFPU): established in 1971 in Belleville, Ontario as a regulating center for all military mail; receives all inbound and outbound mail addressed to CFPOs around the world; see Canadian Forces Post Office.
Canadian Forces Post Office (CFPO): receives mail in various armed forces operational theaters for sorting and forwarding to the troops.
Canadian Map Stamp: used three-color printing and map of the British Empire, issued Dec. 7, 1898.
Canadian National Express Co.: private parcel delivery firm serviced all of Canada, 1920s.
Canadian Republic: a provisional government formed by Louis Riel in Canada’s Red River district; Riel’s portrait appeared on a presumed essay, 1869.
Canadian Transfer Co. Limited: private parcel delivery firm that serviced Toronto, 1900s.
Canadisk: (Dan.) Canadian.
Canal Boat Mail: 1: initiated in 1691 on the Canal du Midi, France. 2: Act of Congress, permitted carrying mail on canals, 1836.
Canal Maritime de Suez: Suez Canal local post stamps, 1868.
Canal Zone: Central America, zone extends about five miles on either side of Panama Canal; Currency: 100 centavos = 1 peso, 100 centesimos = 1 balboa, 100 cents = 1 dollar 1904-79: name of Panama Canal when controlled by the US, 1904, June 24: No.1, 2 centavos rose, Canal Zone overprint on stamps of Panama, 1914, Mar.: first postage due stamp issued, 1924: stamps of US overprinted, 1928: Canal Zone stamps issued, 1929: first air mail stamp issued, 1941: first official, air mail official stamps issued, 1979, Sep. 30: US Canal Zone Postal Service stopped operation, 1979, Oct. 1: Panamanian Postal Service took over postal operations, 1999, Dec. 31: Canal transferred to Panama.
Canarias: Canary Islands, Spanish Civil War, local post overprint, Republican forces, 1936-37.
Canaro: overprint for Fiume, Italian occupation of Arbe and Veglia.
Canary Islands: off coast of Morocco; 1854: used stamps of Spain, 1936, Oct. 27: first stamps issued for use via Lufthansa, 1936, Oct. 27: air mail stamps overprinted for Lufthansa service to Brazil, see Spain.
Canc: abbreviation for canceled.
Canc?: auction term for suspicious cancel.
Cancel: 1: defacement of a stamp to prevent its reuse. 2: marks indicating date, rate, route, or place of mailing.
Cancelación: (Sp.) cancellation; mark placed on a stamp by a postal authority to deface the stamp and prevent its reuse; usually indicates location and date.
Cancelación Falsa: (Sp.) forged cancel.
Cancelado: (Port., Sp.) canceled.
Cancelado a la Orden: (Sp.) see Canceled to Order.
Cancelado a Pluma: (Sp.) pen-canceled.
Cancelamento: (Port.) cancellation; mark placed on a stamp by a postal authority to deface the stamp and prevent its reuse; usually indicates location and date.
Canceled: 1: mark placed on a stamp by a postal authority to deface the stamp and prevent its reuse; often indicates location and date. 2: hand-stamp in a barred oval on miscellaneous stamps cut from printer’s waste and supplied to members of Rowland Hill’s family in 1861 without authority of postal officials by Perkins Bacon & Co. 3: legitimate cancels supplied by Perkins Bacon to Chile, late 1850s. 4: overprint on stamps of Jamaica used as printer’s samples. 5: cancellation applied by Greyhound Bus Co. for a privately carried letter that was to be placed in recipient’s mail box, 1960. 6: British Colonial overprint for Specimen purposes.
Canceled Flight: marking on covers for a planned flight which was not made due to weather, aircraft problem or other reason; a canceled flight cover is a non-flown cover.
Canceled to Order (CTO): stamps canceled by postal authorities without having been used for postage; they are less desirable than stamps which have seen postal duty.
Cancellation: mark placed on a stamp by a postal authority to deface the stamp and prevent its reuse; often indicates location and date; can be a pen mark, perforations or manuscript, bars, or holes punched in stamps, and pieces torn out of Afghanistan stamps.
Cancellation, Advertisement: obliterations which incorporate an advertisement of some place or product.
Cancellation, Bar: 1: cancels that consist of a series of bars, or straight lines. 2: a precancel device in Canada and the US 3: remainders in some countries. 4: telegraph fee paid, Belgium.
Cancellation, Cartwheel: number in center, circular format, used in several nations.
Cancellation, Cut: device that makes a cut through revenue stamps to prevent reuse.
Cancellation, Cogwheel: resembles a gear or cogwheel; early issues of Bavaria, 1850-69.
Cancellation, Dated Manuscript: a hand written containing the date.
Cancellation, Dumb: obliteration device with series of dots, bars that contains no information, also known as mute cancellation.
Cancellation, Duplex: combination of a circular date stamp with an obliteration device.
Cancellation, Fancy: decorative and slogan commemorative cancels, usually refers to 19th century homemade US and Canadian obliterating devices.
Cancellation, Favor: occurs when a stamp is canceled in a specific manner as requested by the mailer, that may or not be in keeping with postal regulations.
Cancellation, Flag: circular date stamp postal marking with a stylized flag as the obliterator.
Cancellation, Hand: postal cancellation with a hand held device on a stamp or postal stationery indicium.
Cancellation, Hole: stamp cancel by a hole punch, indicates revenue or telegraphic usage.
Cancellation, Killer: cancel that shows no place, date or time of mailing.
Cancellation, Machine: cancel applied by mechanical means indicating date and location of the cancellation and prevents the stamp from being reused.
Cancellation, Maltese Cross: first adhesive postage stamp cancel illustrating this cross was a British device; 30 different examples are recorded during period of use;1840-1844.
Cancellation, Manuscript: a hand written, or pen cancellation.
Cancellation, Mechanised, Earliest: Pearson Hill, son of Rowland Hill, devised a machine operated by steam with a dated double impression inside sets of vertical lines, 1857.
Cancellation, Mute: obliteration device with series of dots or bars that contains no information, also known as a mute cancellation.
Cancellation, Naval: postmarks from military ships.
Cancellation, Numeral: a cancellation which includes a number identifying a specific post office, first used by the British Post Office in 1844.
Cancellation, Pen: postally used stamp canceled by pen marks.
Cancellation, Postmark: term for marks applied by postal authorities which indicate any or all of the following: date, rate, route, or place of mailing.
Cancellation, Precanceled: cancellation, as a convenience to customers, applied to stamps by the post office prior to sale,
Cancellation, Roller: cancel is applied by rolling a device across the stamp, usually used on oversize pieces of mail.
Cancellation, Slogan: a circular date stamp cancel combined with a brief message.
Cancellation, Socked-on-the-Nose (SON, SOTN): a good impression of a circular cancel that is applied dead center on the stamp.
Cancellation, Spoon: duplex cancel used in England and Wales; named from the oval shape of the duplex portion.
Cancellation, Squared Circle: circular date stamp with an arrangement of lines or bars outside the circle which makes the entire cancel square.
Cancellation, Straight Line: refers to crayon cancels applied to remaindered stamps taken off sale by a postal administration and sold at a discount.
Cancellation, Target: series of rings as depicted in a target.
Cancellation, Telegraph: obliteration or holes denoting use on a telegraph form.
Cancellation, Typographic: 1869, Jan.-May 31, 1908: French newspapers, to be mailed. had to have stamps affixed in top right-hand corner, canceled by being overprinted by at least four lines of type.
Cancelling Machine: mail processing machine that cancels a postage stamp and postmarks mail; first successful high-speed device made by Albert Hoster, Germany, 1882-83.
Cancel, Official: official USPS postmark at First Day of Issue site.
Cancol Ltd.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
Candareen: unit of currency used in Shanghai.
Candarin: unit of currency used in China.
C.& CO.: Colgate & Co., US cancel or revenue stamp overprint for face powder product, 1914-15.
Candia: district of Heraklion, now part of Greece; see Crete.
Canea: (It.) overprint on stamps of Italy, Office in Crete; also known as La Canea.
CANEJ: Committee on the Accreditation of National Exhibitions and Judges, APS.
Canela: (Sp.) cinnamon (color).
Canet de Mar: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Canet la Real: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Cangas de Onis: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Canillas: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Canillas de Aceituno: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Nationalist forces, 1937.
Canillas de Albauda: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Nationalist forces, 1937.
Canjayar: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican, 1937.
Canna: bogus local post, an island off the west coast of Scotland; issued by island owner John Lorn Campbell as a charity label in 1958.
Cannelé: (Fr.) ribbed.
Cannella: (It.) cinnamon (color).
Cannelle: (Fr.) cinnamon (color).
Cannelles, Regie des: (Fr.) cinnamon monopoly; French Colony revenue inscription.
Canney & Co’s Express: local post serviced Boston, Mass. and New Hampshire; label, 1850.
Cannon & Co.: US inscription on US match stamp; see Private Die Proprietary Stamps.
Cannon Match Co.: inscription on US match stamp; see Private Die Proprietary Stamps.
Cañonero: (Sp.) gunboat, found on naval markings, Spanish Civil War; 1936-37.
Canouan Island: see St. Vincent Grenadines.
Canterbury Courier Serv.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
Cantidades Emitidas: (Sp.) number (of stamps) issued.
Cantinas: (Sp.) canteens, buffets, used on Spanish Civil War local post tax stamps, 1936-37.
Canton: Chinese treaty port; 1844-1922: British Post Office used stamps of Hong Kong, 1856: occupied by French and British forces, 1886-98: used stamps of Germany, 1900, Jan.1-1917, Mar.17: German post offices in China, 1901, June 15: “Canton” overprint on stamps of Indo-China, French Offices in China, 1949, Oct.: occupied by Communist armies.
Cantonal Stamps: Switzerland Canton issues of Zurich (1843), Geneva (1843), and Basel (1845), before the release of Swiss Confederation issues in 1845.
Cantonal Taxe: with numeral 6, inscription on Zurich issue, denoting rate within entire canton.
Canton Island: postmark originally created by collectors for island located halfway between Hawaii and New Caledonia in the central Pacific Ocean; American post office established July 15, 1940, British and American cancels exist, now part of Kiribati.
Cantonment: India States term for military station.
Canton, Miss. Paid 5: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Cap: slang for maximum commission an auction agent invoices a client for representation at a public auction.
CAP: Codice di Avviamento Postale (It.) postal code with five numbers, 1967.
Capacua: Bolivia, bogus stamp by Moens of Belgium, for a mythical state with the capital of Santa Teresa as an April Fool’s prank, 1883.
Cap de Bonne Espérance: (Fr.) Cape of Good Hope.
Cape Breton Island: Sydney, Canadian province of Nova Scotia, post office opened, 1801.
Cape Canaveral, Fla.: formerly named Cape Kennedy.
Cape Cod Express Co.: local express firm serviced Boston to Cape Cod, Mass.; label, 1879.
Cape Jubi: overprint on stamps of Rio de Oro, see Cape Juby.
Cape Juby: Northwest coast of Africa in Spanish Sahara; Currency: 100 centimos = 1 peseta 1916: No.1, 5 centimos on 4 pesetas rose, stamps of Rio de Oro overprinted and surcharged for Spanish troops, 1916-19: stamps of Rio de Oro and Spanish Morocco used, 1919, Jan.-48: “Cabo Juby” overprints on stamps of Spain, first special delivery stamp, 1926: first semipostal, first semipostal special delivery stamps; semipostal stamps of Spain overprinted “Cabo-Juby,” 1934: “Cabo Juby” overprint on stamps of Spanish Morocco, 1938, June 1: first air mail stamp, air mail stamps of Spanish Morocco overprinted “Cabo Juby,” 1976: divided between Morocco and Mauritania, Mauritania turned its portion to Morocco, referred to as Western Sahara.
Cape Kennedy: private local post, now known as Cape Canaveral, 1960s.
Cape of Good Hope: southern part of South Africa; Currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling 1791, Sep. 28: Dutch postal system established in Cape Town, 1817: “Paid” handstamps introduced, 1853, Sep. 1: No.1, 1 penny red, first stamps issued in triangular shape, 1873: Griqualand West; formerly part of Cape of Good Hope, declared a British Crown Colony, 1880: West and Griqualand East annexed to Cape of Good Hope Colony, 1883: traveling post offices introduced, 1889, Nov.: provisionals issued during Boer occupation, stamps of Cape of Good Hope surcharged “Z.A.R.” Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek, South African Republic, 1900, Mar. 24: stamps of Cape of Good Hope surcharged “Mafeking Beseiged,” 1900: stamps of Transvaal handstamped “V.R. Special Post” under British occupation, 1910: Cape of Good Hope, Natal, Orange River Colony and Transvaal formed as Union of South Africa; see Griqualand West.
Cape Province: formerly Cape of Good Hope Colony.
Cape Triangles: first triangular shaped stamps of Cape of Good Hope, issued 1853, so that postal clerks, many of whom were illiterate, could tell the colony’s outgoing mail from mail being delivered to the Cape.
Cape Verde: Western Africa, islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Senegal; Official name of Postal Administration: Correios de Cabo Verde Currency: 1,000 reis = 1 micreis, 100 centavos = 1 escudo (1913) 15th century: colonized by the Portuguese, 1877, Jan. 1: No. 1, 5 reis black, first stamps of Portuguese colonial type, 1893: first newspaper stamp issued, 1904: first postage due stamp issued, 1925: first postal tax, postal tax due stamps issued, 1938, July 26: first air mail stamp issued, 1975, June 11: named a Portuguese overseas province, 1975, July 5: became independent, with ties to Guinea-Bissau, 1975, Dec. 19: issued own stamps as independent nation, 1976, Sept. 30: joined the UPU.
CAPEX: CAnadian Philatelic EXhibition, beginning in 1951 and continuing in 1978, 1987 and 1996.
Capicua: (Sp.) tête-bêche; pair of stamps where one is upside down compared to the other.
Capital: (Sp.) Spain considers this as the capital city or town of a province or region, not the capital of the nation.
Capital Case Type: large letters as distinct from lower case, or smaller letters.
Cap Juby: (Fr.) Cape Juby.
CAPO: Canadian Army Post Office.
Capo Juby: (Sp.) Cape Juby.
Capo Verde: (Sp.) Cape Verde.
Capovolto: (It.) inverted.
Cappadocia: ancient region of Asia Minor, now part of Turkey; cuneiform tablets found dating to 3000 BC, see Cuneiform.
Capped Liberty Card: U.S. penny postal card where Liberty figure is wearing a cap, 1875-81.
Capped Numerals: flaws looking like caps on top of the figure “2″ on the US 2c Washington issue of 1890-3; also known as Cap Variety.
Captain’s Cover: cachet created by the Commanding Officer of a spaceflight recovery ship.
Captions: all inscriptions featured on a stamp.
Cap Vert: (Fr.) Cape Verde Islands.
CAR: 1: Central African Republic. 2: Città aperta Roma (It.), Rome open city, overprint on Italian imperial series, may be bogus.
Caracas and Petare: local post, Venezuela, 1870s.
Caractchaevo: bogus Russian issue.
Caractères (d’Imprimerie): (Fr., Port.) types.
Caramiziu: (Rom.) brick-red (color).
Caratteri: (It.) types.
Caravaca: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Carawak: bogus British Colonial royal wedding frames from book, Surreal Stamps and Unreal Stickers.
Carbon Tetrachloride: fluid marketed to stamp collectors as a watermark fluid; stopped in late 1960s after its use was connected to cancer.
Carbon Tissue: material used to transfer the design of a stamp to a printing cylinder.
Carcagente: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Carchi: 1932 overprint on stamp of Italy, Aegean Islands; see Calchi.
Cardboard Paper: soft surface paper, known as “Bristol Board,” used for proof impressions.
Cardboard Proof: printed on card from US plates in regular colors and distributed in sets to officials in late 1800s; also done in other countries.
Cardedeau: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Cardiff Penny: imperforate sheet of British penny red, Plate No.116, mistakenly issued to Cardiff Post Office, Jan. 1870.
Cardinal Match Co.: inscription on US match stamp; see Private Die Proprietary Stamps.
Card Paper: a thick stiff paper made by pasting together a number of layers of paper.
Carecer (de): (Sp.) to be without, to lack.
Carelia: bogus, not valid for postage.
Care of Mr. Waghorn: handstamp on overland mail between Great Britain and India, 1836.
Caret Cancels: V-shaped cancellation used on US 1861-69 stamps and Bank Note issues.
Cargill Pritchard: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
Caribbean: term for West Indies islands; consists of the islands from the tip of Florida to South America, including Cuba, Dominican Republic, French Guiana, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Suriname and the West Indies islands: 1702-11: monthly private packet service under government contract, 1755: British government packet service started, 1820: prepaid postage required and “Crowned Circle” cancels used 1840: Royal Mail Steam Packet Co. handled all mail, 1858: prepayment to British destinations from England made compulsory, 1860, May 1: colonial stamps adopted in each colony, 1865: French firm “Compagnie Général Transatlantique” established postal packets.
Caribisches Meer: (Ger.) Caribbean Sea.
Caridad: (Sp.) charity.
Carimbar: (Port.) to cancel.
Carimbar de Favor: (Port.) canceled to order.
Carimbo Especial: (Port.) special cancellation.
Carimbo Manual: (Port.) handstamp.
Carinthia: province of Austria; 1920, Sept. 16: stamps of Austria overprinted and surcharged “Kärnten Äbstimmung” for a plebiscite to determine whether people wanted to remain with Austria or become part of Yugoslavia; vote was in favor of Austria. 1920: stamps of Yugoslavia overprinted and surcharged “KGCA” (Carinthian Governmental Commission, Zone A) for same plebiscite.
Carinthie: (Fr.) Carinthia.
Caritas: (Latin) charity; overprint / surcharge for charity stamps in Belgium, Denmark and Luxembourg (1914).
Carka and Caictu Islands: bogus British Colonial royal wedding frames from book, Surreal Stamps and Unreal Stickers.
Carlist, Carlistas: (Sp.) stamps of Spain authorized by Don Carlos of Spain in 1873-87.
Carlist Kingdom: (Sp.) nickname for stamps authorized by Don Carlos of Spain during civil war, French stamps on mail from provinces under Don Carlos rule, 1873-75.
Carmesi: (Sp.) crimson (color).
Carmin: (Fr., Rom., Sp.) carmine (color).
Carmin-brun: (Rom.) carmine-brown (color).
Carmine Error: nickname for a US 5¢ stamp, normally printed in blue, mistakenly used on a plate of 2¢ stamps printed in carmine, creating a color error for the 5¢ stamp.
Carmin-liliachiu: (Rom.) lilac-brown (color).
Carmino: (It.) carmine (color).
Carmin Vinoso: (Sp.) wine-red (color).
Carmona: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Nationalist forces, 1936-38.
Carmona, Antonio Oscar Carmona de Fragosa: President of Portugal; common design on stamps of Portugal and Colonies, 1970.
Carn: labels issued in British island for a society project.
Carnaro: part of Fiume, between Italy and Yugoslavia; 1920, Nov. 20: nickname for overprint on stamps of Fiume during occupation by Legionnaires of d’Annunzio; full overprint is “Reggenza / Italiana / del / Carnaro”.
Carne: (Sp.) flesh (color).
Carnes’ City Letter Express: US local post, San Francisco, CA., used stamps, 1864.
Carnes’ Express: phantom US local post, S. Allan Taylor, San Francisco, CA, 1865-66.
Carnet: (Fr.) booklet (of stamps).
Carnet à Choix: (Fr.) approvals, approval book.
Carnet de Timbres: (Fr.) stamp booklet that contains one or more panes of stamps.
Carn Iar: bogus, uninhabited summer island with British local post carriage labels, prior to1962.
Carnicino: (It.) flesh (color).
Carolina City, N.C. Paid 5: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Caroline Islands: 550 islands, west Pacific Ocean, east of Australia; Currency: 100 pfenning = 1 mark 1899-pre: under Spanish control since 1686, 1899: Germany bought islands from Spain, 1900: No.1, 3 pfennige dark brown, colonial stamps of Germany overprinted “Karolinen,” 1901, Jan.: No.1, 3 pfennige brown, Karolinen inscription, 1905, 1910: stamps bisected due to stamp shortage, 1914, Oct. 7: Japanese stamps used during occupation, 1920s: mourning label issued by German stamp dealer Sigmund Hartig, 1947: administered by the US as part of the Pacific Islands Trusteeship, 1951: U.S. post offices established, U.S. stamps used.1981: western portion became Republic of Palau, 1983: Palau issued its own stamps, 1984: Micronesia issued its own stamps, 1986: balance of nation became the Federated States of Micronesia.
Carolinerna: (Swed.) the Caroline Islands.
Carolines: (Fr.) Caroline Islands.
Carolinske øerne: (Dan.) the Caroline Islands.
Cárpátalja: (Hung.) Carpatho-Ukraine, see Karpát-Ukrajna.
Carpathian Ruthenia: see Celistvosti – Podkarpatská Rus.
Carpatho-Ukraine: formerly province of Czechoslovakia, 1939, Mar.15: stamp issued for the Carpatho-Ukrainian Diet (governing body),1939, March 16: annexed by Hungary, 1945: reverted back to Czechoslovakia, 1949: annexed by the Soviet Union. see Celistvosti – Podkarpatská Rus.
Carpenter & Co’s Express: local post serviced Boston, Mass. to Maine; used labels, 1848-53.
Carpenter, Jos. A.: printer of 19th century revenue stamps.
Carpenter’s Express: local parcel firm serviced Boston and Sharon, Mass.; used labels.
Carpeta: (Sp.) folder, portfolio, special albums for covers.
Carratraca: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Nationalist forces, 1937.
Carriacou & Petite Martinique: inscription on stamps of Grenada, June 18, 1999.
Carriage Stamp: a stamp that pays for postage within a certain area only, includes privately produced issues as well as government issues; a regular postage stamp must be affixed to the cover if the letter is to be delivered outside the local area.
Carried Space Cover: a cover that has been flown on a space vehicle during equipment testing or an actual mission.
Carrier: an individual firm or private company that transports mail from one postal facility to another, USPS term.
Carrier Backstamp: US postal marking of 1870-90 used in some large post offices to backstamp mail handled by carriers.
Carrier Route: addresses served by a postal employee to deliver mail to customers, USPS term.
Carrier-Route Presort: bulk mail presorted and bundled by carrier delivery route for discount postage rates, USPS term.
Carriers: individuals or firms, hired by the post office, who charged a fee to take mail to the nearest post office, or to collect mail and deliver it to the addressee.
Carriers and Locals Society: devoted to the collection and study of US carriers, locals, and expresses.
Carrier Sequence Barcode Sorter: an automated machine that sorts mail for an individual carrier route, USPS term.
Carrier Service: delivery of mail from the post office to an addressee for a fee; fee eliminated June 30, 1863 when free city delivery went into effect; regular postage only paid for mail delivery between post offices.
Carriers, Motto: “Neither snow nor rain nor heat nor gloom of night stays these couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds.” Herodotus.
Carriers One Cent Dispatch: Baltimore, Md., see Carriers’ Stamps.
Carrier’s Stamp: S. Allan Taylor label.
Carriers’ Stamps: 1842-60: stamps used for delivery of mail by private carrier from a post office to the addressee; or to a post office or to another address in the same city; when the postal service was first organized, letters were carried from post office to post office since there was no delivery to addressee, 1850-55: semi-official issues, 1851, Sept.: official issues; see Carriers.
Carrion de los Cespedes: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Nationalist forces, 1937.
Carroll Postal Card: United States non-denominated postal card, value 14¢, 1985.
Carr’s Express: local post serviced Boston, Mass. to Bangor, Me; used circular labels;1851-52.
Carry by Favor: inscription indicating that the mail was carried by private ships’ captains.
Carta: (Sp.) letter.
Carta Aérea: (Sp.) cover carried by air and postmarked at point of origin, departure or intermediate points on the route.
Carta a Foto: (Sp.) special letter form, microfilmed airgraph, used by British forces during WWII.
Carta Cecografica: (Sp.) letter for blind written in braille, can be sent post-free in Spain if an open envelope is used.
Carta con Diseño Filatélico: (Sp.) cachet, a rubber stamp or printed impression on an envelope which describes the event for which the envelope was mailed; cachets are used for first days of issue, first flights, naval events, stamp exhibitions, etc.
Carta con Fili di Seta: (It.) granite paper.
Carta Costolata: (It.) ribbed paper.
Carta del Primer Dia: (It.) first day cover.
Carta Desinfectada: (Sp.) disinfected letter.
Cartagena: 1: provisional during Civil War for city on Caribbean coast of Colombia, 1899. 2: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Carta Gessata: (It.) chalky paper; stamp paper with coating of chalk or clay on the surface.
Cartajima: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Nationalist forces, 1937.
Carta Liscia: (It.) wove paper.
Cartama: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Nationalist forces, 1937.
Carta Maxi: (It.) maximum card.
Carta Patinata: (It.) glossy paper.
Carta Sigillata: (Latin) stamped stationery, applied to legal documents in Sweden, 1823.
Carta Sobreavion: (Sp.) air letter form.
Cartas Postales Recortadas: (Sp.) cut-outs from printed stationery, see Cut Square.
Cartas Prefilatelicas: (Sp.) pre-stamp letters.
Carta Tinto: (It.) tinted paper.
Carta Unita: (It.) wove paper.
Carta Vergata: (It.) laid paper.
Carte: (Fr.) map
Carte Maximum: (Fr.) maximum card.
Carte-maximum: (Hung.) maximum card.
Carte Postale: (Fr.) postal card.
Carte Postale Illustrée: (Fr.) picture postcard.
Cartera: (Sp.) postman’s bag.
Carter & Co. Express: local express serviced Boston, Bradford and Haverhill, Mass.; label.
Carte-Réponse: (Fr.) postcard reply portion.
Carteria: (Sp.) 1: main post office letter sorting area. 2: postal agency in small village which receives and sends letters from nearest post office or railway station.
Carterias: (Sp.) postmark applied to mail at Carteria; see Carteria.
Cartero: (Sp.) postman.
Carter’s, G. Despatch: US local post, Philadelphia, Pa., 1849-51.
Cartersville, Ga. Paid: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Cartes Maxi: (Fr.) abbreviation of French term for maximum cards.
Cartilla Postal de Espana: inscription on the first Spanish franchise stamp; see Franchise Stamps.
Cartolina: (It.) postcard.
Carton: thick, often soft type of paper; used in some copies of Chile 1878-99 issue, Denmark, 1884 issue, and some early Swiss issues.
Carton comemorativ: (Rom.) commemorative card.
Carto-Philately: study and collection of stamps depicting maps in their designs.
Cartor: stamp security printer for many countries, name found imprinted on gutter labels.
Cartouche: an oval or rectangular frame containing the name of the country or ruler.
Cartridge Paper: name of paper used for making ammunition, thick, rough surfaced, used for Trinidad on bluish tint paper, 1853.
Cartwheel Cancels: circular numeral types used by Spain 1858-64.
Carúpano, Port of: port near Trinidad, Venezuela; 1902, Nov.-1903: local post stamps printed when a blockade depleted the supply of stamps.
Cary, John: made a survey in 1798, “Distance of English and Welsh Towns” from London, along all the principal roads in the country resulting in mileage stamps in 1801.
Casabermeja: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Nationalist forces, 1937.
Casablanca: 1: British postal agency opened Jan. 1, 1887, closed Aug. 14, 1937. 2: also known as Dar el Beida, Morocco.
Casa da Moeda with Star: watermark on stamps of Brazil.
Casa de Correos: (Sp.) post office.
Casa de la Moneda: (Sp.) Spanish Mint, printer of all Spanish stamps.
Casarabonela: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Nationalist forces, 1937.
Casares: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Nationalist forces, 1937.
CASB: Crown Agents Stamp Bureau
CASC: Canadian Army Service Corps; see RCASC.
Case: 1: (Fr.) position in plate, sheet or setting. 2: equipment with separations into which clerks sort letters, parcels, USPS term.
Casement Plate: see Duty Plate.
Cash: unit of currency used in China.
Casilla: (Sp.) post office box.
Casket: used in Victorian times for a small box intended to hold things of value, such as postage stamps.
Caso: Dodecanese Sea, Aegean island, between Turkey and Greece; 1912-pre: used stamps of Turkey, 1912: No.1, 2 centesimi orange-brown, overprint “Caso” on stamps of Italy, 1916: first stamps without overprints, 1920: Turkey ceded group to Italy, 1929: general Aegean Islands issue, 1930, 1932: two sets overprinted for island issued, 1943, Sept.: became part of Greece, 1943: reoccupied by German forces, 1945: liberated by Allied forces, 1945, May 21: British post offices opened, stamps of Britain overprinted “M.E.F.” (Middle East Forces), when islands transferred to Greece: see M.E.F., Middle East Forces, 1947: British post offices closed, stamps of Greece overprinted “S.D.D.” (Dodecanese Military Occupation); see S.D.D., 1947, summer: stamps of Greece used.
Caspary, Alfred H.: (1878-1955) American collector who specialized in classic stamps of the world, auction catalogs with his material are used as reference works.
Caspe: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Cassa de la Delva: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Cassos: see Calchi.
Castagna: (It.) rust (color).
Castalla: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Castaño: (Sp.) chestnut (color).
Castaño Oxidado: (Sp.) rust (color).
Castellar: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Castellcir: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Castellet de Lobreget: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Castellorizo, Castelrosso: island in the Mediterranean Sea, east of Rhodes, near Greece; Currency: 20 centimes = 1 piaster, 100 centimes = 1 franc, 1915, Dec. 15: occupied by France, 1920, June 19: No.1, 1 centime gray, stamps of France overprinted “O.N.F. Castellorizo” (Occupation Navale Français), “B.N.F. Castellorizo” (Base Navale Français), “O.F. Castelrosso” (Occupation Français), 1920, Aug. 10: ceded to Italy, 1922, July 11: “Castelrosso” overprint on stamps of Italy, 1945: ceded to Greece, 1946, Aug. 21: British post offices opened, 1947, March 31: British post offices closed.
Castelltersol: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Castelnau-Barnes Post: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
Castelon de la Plana: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Castiglione d’Intelvi: (It.) city in Italy, local post, Italian Social Republic, 1945.
Castillo: (Sp.) castle, thematic subject.
Castle & Victoria Bridge Tramway Company: United Kingdom postal strike; locals, 1971.
Castlemore: bogus, fantasy stamp from Ireland.
Castuera: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Casuta postala: (Rom.) post office box.
Cat: auction firm abbreviation for catalog value.
Catalanistas: (Sp.) propaganda labels issued by Catalan separatists promoting campaign for autonomy, 1899.
Catalog(ue): priced listing of philatelic material, or auction catalog, usually in country alphabetical order.
Catalog(ue) Number: number assigned by a catalog publisher to each individual stamp.
Catalog(ue) Value: the price established by a recognized postage stamp catalog for a stamp is known as the catalog value of the stamp; used as a guide for retail or wholesale prices.
Catálogo: (It., Port.) catalog.
Catalogo d’Asta: (It.) auction catalog.
Catálogo de Subasta: (Sp.) auction catalog.
Catalogo Unificado: (Sp.) stamp catalog produced by a consortium of Spanish stamp dealers.
Catalogue d’Encan: (Fr.) auction catalog.
Catalogue du Timbres-Poste: (Fr.) first stamp catalog, issued y Alfred Potiquet, December 21, 1861.
Catalogului: (Rom.) catalog.
Cataluna, Catalonia: province in Spain, used Spanish Carlist stamps in 1874.
Catapulte: (Fr.) see Catapult Mail.
Catapult Mail: “Ship to Shore” mail carried by light aircraft catapulted from the deck of ships about 600 miles from land to save hours of docking time, 1920s-30s, introduced by French postal authorities on Aug. 12, 1928.
Catcher Post Offices: mail catchers and cranes used for exchange of mail between trains and railway post offices where trains do not stop at the station, 1873-1974.
Caterson Brotz & Co.: playing card stamp inscription; see Private Die Proprietary Stamps.
Cat Island: fantasy stamp from American Journal of Philately, 1890s.
Cats: a mail service in Liege, Belgium in 1879, discontinued when cats refused to cooperate.
Cat’s Eye: Brazilian stamps issued from 1854-61.
Cattaro: part of Dalmatia during Austrian Empire, now mart of Montenegro; 1941-43: occupied by Italy, 1943-45: occupied by Germany, 1944: stamps of Italy and Yugoslavia overprinted by German occupation forces; also known as Kotor.
Cauca: Department of Colombia; issued provincial post stamps 1879-90, inscribed “no hay estampillas” (No Stamp Available) and “Manuel e Jimenez” are considered receipt labels.
Caudete: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Caury: unit of currency used in Republic of Guinea.
Cavalla(e): now port in Greece on Aegean Sea, known as Kavalla; 1874, Jan.: French post office opened; stamps used with “5156″ cancel, 1893: No.1, 5 centimes green, overprint and inscription “Cavalle” on stamps of France, Offices in Turkish Empire, 1912: occupied by Bulgaria, from Turkey during First Balkan War, 1913: occupied by Greece, Greek overprint on stamps of Bulgaria, prior to stamps of Greece, 1914, Aug.: French post office closed.
Cavalla: city in the Ottoman Empire, Egypt, Interpostal Seals used 1868, see Interpostal Seals.
Cavallini: (It.) Little Horsemen; 1818, Nov. 17-1820: tax stamps impressed on letter sheets used in the Kingdom of Sardinia; sum paid did not cover postage for delivery, but delivered without additional postage as a courtesy to sender.
Cavan & Leitrim & Roscommon Light Railway: Ireland local post.
Cavan & Leitrim Railway: Ireland local post.
Cave: 1: Ceylon control overprint to prevent theft. 2: USPS postage stamp mail order center in Kansas City, Mo., located in former salt mines.
Caverly’s Express: local baggage firm service parts of Brooklyn and New York City, used a label, year unknown.
Caxas: (Sp.) regional postal administrations established by Spain in Havana, Mexico City, Guatemala City, Buenos Aires and Lima for its colonies, 1764.
Cayes of Belize: Belize offshore islands; 1984, May 30; No.1, 1c multi, first stamp, very little postal usage since Belize stamps used.
Cayman Islands: islands in the Caribbean Sea, northwest of Jamaica; Currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling, 20 shillings = 1 pound, 100 cents = 1 dollar (1969) 18th century: British colony, 1863: administered by Jamaica, 1877, Apr.1: joined the UPU as an Overseas Territory of Great Britain, 1889, Apr.: used stamps of Jamaica, 1900, Nov.: No.1, 1/2 penny green, first stamps issued, 1917, Feb. 26: first war tax stamp issued, surcharged “War Stamp,” 1962, Nov. 28: became a Crown Colony.
Cayman Islands: inscription, Rich People, David Horry unissued Great Britain cinderella, 2001.
Caymanöarna: (Swed.) Cayman Islands.
Cayman øerne: (Dan.) the Cayman Islands.
Cazalla de la Sierra: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Nationalist forces, 1936-37.
Cazinska Krajina: rebel state of Bihac, Bosnia, local post overprint, 1993-95.
Cazoria: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1936-37.
CB: 1: Scott Catalogue prefix to identify air post semipostal stamps. 2: Cape Breton, when used in a postmark. 3: Correspondence Baloise (Fr.) pre-adhesive postmark for mail from Basel, Switzerland. 4: USPS term for convertible book, pane of stamps having a peel off strip that can be removed so as to fold the pane into booklet form. 5: Central Biçêtre (Fr.) Central Prison, 1792. 6: Cyons Brown, French cancel or revenue stamp overprint for face powder product, 1915-16.
C.B.N.: Canadian Bank Note Co., printer of Canada’s Customs Duty stamps, etc.
CBO: Scott Catalogue prefix to identify air post semipostal official stamps.
C. Bravos: district overprint used on stamps of Mexico during 1856-1883 for Ciudad Bravos.
CBRS: Charles Brooke Raja Sarawak, letters in four corners on first stamps of Sarawak; Brooke made Rajah of Sarawak after he helped put down a rebellion in 1841.
CC: 1: cut cancel. 2: corner card. 3: Crown Colonies watermark. 4: corner crease. 5: crash cover. 6: Correspondance Cantonale (Fr.) canton mail, known used in Belgium, 1847. 7: “Cs” surmounted by crown, Post Office of the King, Charles X,1825-30.
C.C.B.: Charles C. Brumm, BEP employee initials, 1906-1928; see Plate Finisher Initials, Siderographer.
CCC: Collectors Club of Chicago, founded 1928.
CCCP: now Russia, Cyrillic inscription on stamps of the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), Aug. 19, 1933, first usage
C.C.D.: Civil Censorship Department.
C.Ch.: overprint on stamps of French Colonies for Cochin China.
C.C.N.: overprint on stamps of French Colonies for Cochin China.
CCNY: Collectors Club of New York.
C.C.P.: 1: Collectors Club Philatelist (Journal of the CCNY), 2: abbreviation for chèque-postal, (Fr.) payment through postal checking account.
CCPS: Christopher Columbus Philatelic Society.
C.C.T.A.: Commission for Technical Cooperation in Africa, south of the Sahara.
C.C.V.: Compagnia Corrieri Veneti (It.) Venetian Couriers Company, pre-adhesive postmark.
CD: 1: Convict Department, South Australia official overprint, 1868-74. 2: correspondence locale distribution (Fr.) local letters posted at smaller ofices,1833-58.
CDC: Continuous Die Cut
C. de B: Clyde V. DeBinder, BEP employee initials, 1906-1928; see Plate Finisher Initials, Siderographer.
C.de E.: Correspondencia d’Espana (Sp.) Spanish correspondence.
C. De Pesos: Philippines money unit; centimos in 1864; centavos in 1876.
CDS, cds: see Circular Date Stamp.
CE: 1: Scott Catalogue prefix to identify air mail special delivery stamps. 2: Canada East, when used in a postmark.
CEA: European Confederation of Agriculture.
CECA: European Coal and Steel Community, seen on Europa stamps.
Cech: (Czech.) Czech.
Cechy: (Czech.) Bohemia.
Cechy a Morava: inscription on stamps of Czechoslovakia, Bohemia and Morävia, 1939-44.
Cecograma: (Sp.) letter for the blind written in Braille; see Carta Cecografica.
Cecoslovacchia: (It.) Czechoslovakia.
Cedex: pre-sorting facility in France, offered to large French firms, usually as part of the address.
Cedi: unit of currency used in Ghana.
CEEA: European Community for Atomic Energy, seen on Europa stamps.
C.E.F.: 1: Cameroons Expeditionary Force; Cameroon surcharge on stamps of German Cameroun, British Occupation, 1915. 2: overprint on stamps of India for China Expeditionary Force, first issue in Boxer Rebellion, 1900; see China Expeditionary Force.
Cefalonia: see Cephalonia and Ithaca.
C.E.F. Siberia: Canadian Expeditionary Forces, Siberia, 1918.
CEH: European Time Table Conference.
Ceh: (Rom.) Czech (adj.).
Cehoslovac: (Rom.) Czechoslovakian (adj.).
Celanova: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Nationalist forces, 1937.
Celebes: see Netherlands Indies.
Celebrate the Century: series of ten US sheets of 15 stamps each issued between 1998 and 2000 each for a different decade of American events.
Celebrity Covers: covers addressed to a famous person.
Celestia: bogus issue for United Nations of Outer Space.
Celina: (Czech.) postal card(s).
Celina Ústrední Sociální Pojistovny: (Czech.) postcard for ordering into the central social security system.
Celiny: (Czech.) postal stationary entires.
Celistvost(i): (Czech.) cover(s) and / or other postal history items.
Celistvosti-Husita: (Czech.) refers to the covers and / or other postal history items from the Czechoslovakia 1920 “Hussite Priest” definitive issues.
Celistvosti-Hradcany: (Czech.) refers to the covers and / or other postal history items from the Czechoslovakia 1918-1920 definitive series depicting the “Hradcany” castle in Prague.
Celistvosti-Koncentracní Tabory: (Czech.) refers to the covers and / or other postal history items representing the WWII German concentration camps.
Celistvosti-Koncentracní Tabory / Auschwitz-Birkenau: (Czech.) refers to the covers and / or other postal history items representing the WWII concentration camps at Auschwitz in S Poland ca. 35 miles W of Kraków, and the nearby village of Birkenau.
Celistvosti-Koncentracní Tabory / Buchenwald: (Czech.) refers to the covers and/or other postal history items representing the WWII concentration camp at Buchenwald, Thuringia province, central Germany near Weimar.
Celistvosti-Koncentracní Tabory / Ravensbrück: (Czech.) refers to the covers and/or other postal history items representing the WWII concentration camp at Ravensbrück, Brandenburg province, in NE Germany N of Berlin.
Celistvosti-Koncentracní Tabory / Majdanek: (Czech.) refers to the covers and/or other postal history items representing the WWII Majdanek concentration camp near Lublin, ca 95 miles SE of Warsaw, Poland.
Celistvosti-Koncentracní Tabory / Stutthof: (Czech.) refers to the covers and / or other postal history items representing the WWII concentration camp at Stutthof, in the area of Danzig.
Celistvosti-Koncentracní Tabory / Terezín(Czech.) refers to the covers and / or other postal history items representing the WWII concentration camp at Terezín Bohemia. Operated as a model camp, the inmates were issued special stamps for the free franking of parcels; the stamps were forwarded to internee family and / or friends for free-franking use on parcels; parcels not franked with these stamps were not delivered.
Celistvosti-Legionárské: (Czech.) refers to the covers and / or other postal history items from the Czechoslovakia 1919 regular semi-postal issues sold for the benefit of Legionnaires’ orphans.
Celistvosti-Letecke: (Czech.) refers to airmail / flight covers, first flight covers, souvenir flight covers, and other aerophilatelic memorabilia.
Celistvosti-Podkarpatská Rus: (Czech.) refers to the pre-20th century pre-adhesive folded-letters, envelope-letters and / or other postal history items emanating from the Russian occupation of the Carpatho-Ukraine, the area having been given several names during the various occupations periods The area includes the extreme W administrative division of the Ukraine; reorganized in post-WWII from territory ceded to the USSR by Czechoslovakia (1945).
Celistvosti-Polní Posta: (Czech.) refers to the covers and / or other postal history items representing military field post usage
Celistvosti-Posta Ceskoslovenska 1919: (Czech.) refers to the covers and / or other postal history items from the “Posta / Ceskoslovenska / 1919” overprints on Austrian stamps semi-postal issues.
Celistvosti-Predznamkove Dopisy: (Czech.) refers to the pre-20th century pre- adhesive folded-letters, envelope-letters and / or other postal history items which may, or may not, include post office markings.
Celistvosti-Protektorát Cechy a Moravia: (Czech.) refers to the covers and / or other postal history originating with the postage stamp issues of 1939-1945 Bohemia and Moravia, see Protektorát Cechy a Moravia.
Celistvosti-Skautsé: (Czech.) refers to the covers and / or other postal history items From the 7 November 1918 10 H(eller) and 20 H local Czechoslovakian “Lion” stamps Issued with “Posta / Ceskych Skauta” and “ve Sluzbach / Narodny Vlady” inscriptions (“Czech Boy Scout Post / in National Government Service”).
Celistvosti-SO 1920: (Czech.) refers to the covers and / or other postal history items of the “SO / 1920” overprints on the 1918-1920 Czechoslovakia stamps issued for occupied Eastern Silesia. The territory was later divided between Czechoslovakia and Poland through the city of Teschen; see Ceskoslovenska Polní Posta-Tesínko.
Celistvosti-Sudety: (Czech.) refers to the covers and / or other postal history items representing the 1938-1945 German occupation of the Sudetenland (q.v.).
Celistvosti-Zepelinová Posta: (Czech.) refers to Zeppelin mail covers.
Cement: early stamps of Great Britain advised, “In wetting the back be careful not to remove the cement”; known today as the gum.
CEN: Comite Européen de Normalisation (Fr.) European Standards Organization; has a committee on establishing postal standards (CEN TC 331) for all European nations; as of 2001, over 5,000 standar ds were available.
Cenrage: (Fr.) centering.
Censored by the I.R.A.: rubber stamp marking applied in Ireland, 1916-21.
Censored Mail (mark): a cover with a hand-stamp, manuscript or label indicating that the contents have been opened, read and censored, handstamped markings were used during the Boer War, 1899-1902; special censored labels date from World War 1, handstamped marks were used in subsequent wars.
Censorship: the examination of anything communicated to find and suppress language deemed to be objectionable on moral, political, military or other grounds.
Censorship Dept.: Egyptian censor’s round stamp, WW II.
Censura: (Sp.) censorship.
Censurada: (Sp.) censored.
Censura Gubernativa: (Sp.) government censor.
vCensura Militar: (Sp.) military censor.
Censurar (en) Destino: (Sp.) to be censored at destination.
Censuré: (Fr.) censored, censorship, censor (mark).
Cenus: (Rom.) grey (color).
Census Marks: see Dumb Cancellation.
Cenusiu: (Rom.) ash-grey (color).
Cent: smallest unit of currency in many nations.
Centaur Co.: US medicine stamp inscription; see Private Die Proprietary Stamps.
Centenaire Algerie: (Fr.) inscription for centenary of Algeria.
Centenaire du Gabon: (Fr.) centenary of Gabon.
Centenario de Ciudad de Viña del Mar: (Sp.) 100 years of the city of Viña del Mar on semipostal stamp of Chile, 1974.
Centenary International Philatelic Exhibition: CIPEX; international stamp show held in New York City, N.Y., 1947.
Center: the stamp’s most prominent feature, whether a portrait, bust, or a numeral.
Center Frame: the framework surrounding the center, usually forming a feature of the design.
Centering: stamp design location on the piece of paper it is printed on; if the margins outside the design are exactly equal, it is called a “perfectly centered stamp.”
Center Inverted: a production error in which the center of the stamp is inverted with respect to the frame. In many cases, the error is actually the result of the frame bring printed incorrectly and the errors technically should be known as inverted frames.
Center Lines: printing guidelines which divide a sheet of US stamps into four panes.
Center Line Block: a block of stamps enclosing the crossing point of the vertical and horizontal guidelines; on early US issues, one of the most valuable blocks on a sheet of stamps, second only to the plate number blocks.
Center Misplaced: usually the result of faulty registration during multi-color printing.
Center Omitted: the error is so obvious that examples are considered as printer’s waste, however, some non-US stamps were actually issued with missing centers.
Centerport: local post, US, New York.
Centesimi: Italy currency overprint on stamps of Austria.
Centesimi di Corona: surcharge on stamps of Italy, Italian Occupation of Austria (Dalmatia, Trentino and Venezia Giulia), 1921.
Centimes: 1: Austria currency overprint, offices in Crete. 2: overprint on stamps of Germany, currency unit, offices in Turkey. 3: currency unit in many countries.
Centimes à perçevoir: (Fr.) (plus numeral, no country name); Guadeloupe, France, French Colonies, postage due.
Centimo: unit of currency used in many Spanish-language countries.
Centimos: currency overprint on stamps of France and Germany, Offices in Morocco.
Centrado: (Sp.) centered.
Centrafricaine Republique: (Fr.) Central African Republic, Western Africa.
Centrafricaine: (Fr.) Central African. Centrage: (Fr.) centering.
Centraje: (Sp.) centered.
Central African Federation: Federation of Northern / Southern Rhodesia, Nyasaland, 1953-63.
Central African Republic: central Africa, north of the Democratic Republic of the Congo; Official name of Postal Administration: Office National des Postes et de l’épargne Currency: 100 centimes = 1 franc 1892: stamps of French Congo, 1907: stamps of Middle Congo, 1915: stamps of Middle Congo overprinted “Oubangui-Chari-Tchad” for Ubangi-Shari and Tchad, 1916: first semi-postal stamp, 1922, Nov.: overprint changed to “Oubangi-Chari” and Tchad, 1924: stamps of Chad, Gabon, Middle Congo and Ubangi-Shari overprinted “Afrique Equatorial Francaise,” 1928: first postage due as Ubangi-Shari, 1931: first commemorative as Ubangi-Shari, 1936, March: first issue of stamps of “Afrique Equatorial Francaise,” used on stamps of Gabon, 1958, Dec. 1: with independence, changed name to Central African Republic, 1959, Dec. 1: No.1, 15 francs multicolor, first stamps issued, 1960, Aug. 13: fully independent, 1960, Sept. 3: first air mail stamp issued, 1961, June 28: joined the UPU, 1962, Jan. 1: first military stamp issued, 1962, Apr. 7: first semipostal stamp issued, 1962, Oct. 15: first postage due stamp issued, 1964, Mar. 7: air mail semipostal stamp issued, 1965: first official stamp issued, 1976, Dec.4: changed name to Central African Empire, 1977: first official, air mail stamps issued as Empire, 1979, Sept. 20: became the Central African Republic again, 2003: new government established; see Chad, Gabonaise Republique.
Central Albania: 1914, Jan-1916: provisional regime, Austria took over in 1916; see Epirus.
Centrala Lithuaen: (Swed.) Central Lithuania
Central-litauen: (Dan., Nor.) Central Lithuania.
Central America: consists of the land between Mexico and Colombia; consists of Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama.
Central American Steamship Co.: local post, West Indies, 1886.
Centralamerika: (Dan., Nor., Swed.) Central America.
Central Annam: Viet Minh government, North Vietnam, 1950-52.
Central China: 1949: central Chinese Liberation Area established; included the provinces of Honan (Aug. 1949), Hupeh (June 4, 1949), Hunan (1949), and Kiangsi (June 20, 1949); separate issues for the regions were issued.
Central Express: railroad package express firm operated by the Central Railroad Company of New Jersey; used corner cards and labels; 1869-87.
Central-litauen: (Dan., Nor.) Central Lithuania.
Centrala Lithuaen: (Swed.) Central Lithuania
Central Lithuania: area between Poland, Lithuania and Russia (Vilnius Republic) Currency: 100 fennigi = 1 markka 1915-pre: under Russian rule, 1915: stamps of Germany overprinted for Lithuania, 1918, Dec.: regular Lithuanian stamps used, 1919, Mar. 4: overprinted stamps of Russia, 1920, Oct. 9: occupied by Polish forces, issued own stamps, postage due stamp, 1921: No.1, 25 fennigi red, first semipostal stamp issued, 1922, Apr. 16: annexed to Poland, 1939, Oct.: occupied by Soviet forces, overprint on stamps of Lithuania “Vilnius 1939-X-10,” 1940, July 21: stamps of Lithuania overprinted “LTSR 21 VII 1940″ Lietuvos Tarbu Socialistine Respublika; Lithuanian Socialist Soviet Republic, 1940, Aug.3: incorporated into the Soviet Union, used stamps of Russia; see Russia, 1990: became independent.
Central London L.S.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
Central Litauen: (Dan.) Central Lithuania.
Centralni Litva: (Czech.) Central Lithuania.
Central Overland California & Pike’s Peak Express: private post firm operated between St. Joseph, Mo. and San Francisco, Calif., used labels, 1860
Central Post Office: US local post handstamp, New York, N.Y., 1856.
Central States of Somali: bogus, no postal value.
Central Taxis of Dover: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
Central Tranvias: (Sp.) postmark for mail received from trams at Madrid central post office.
Central Wales & Carmarthen Junction Railway: Wales local post.
Centrar: (Sp.) centering.
Centrato: (It.) centered.
Centratura: (It.) centering.
Centre(é): (British, Fr.) center.
Centrerat: (Swed.) centered.
Centro: (Sp., It.) center.
Cents: 1: (with crown) Straits Settlements currency overprint on stamps of India. 2: overprint on stamps of Russia, offices in China.
Centu: currency unit in Memel, 1923.
Century of Progress: US stamps issued for the 1933 Century of Progress Exposition in Chicago
Cenzurirano: (Slovenian) censored.
Cephalonia and Ithaca: Islands in the Ionian Sea off west coast of Greece; 1941: overprint on stamps of Greece by Italy with Italia / Occupazione Militare/Italiana isole / Cefalonia e Itaca, Italian Military Occupation of the Islands of Cephalonia and Ithaca, then general occupation issues, 1941: first postage due, air mail stamps issued, 1943: German occupation overprint used for eight days, 1943: stamps of Greece used; see Ionian Islands, Italy.
CEPT: Conference of European Postal and Telecommunications Administrations.
Cerdanyola: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Cerdeña: (Sp.) Sardinia.
Ceremony Program: card or folder detailing program at first day or stamp unveiling ceremony.
Ceres: goddess of the harvest; 1849: illustrated on first stamps of France, 1856-78: depicted on the Argentine province of Corrientes, 1912: design used by Portugal.
Ceres, S.S.: steamship of the Danube Steam Navigation Company built for the Upper Danube Lines; used ship’s marking on mail, 1850s.
Cereza: (Sp.) cerise (color).
Cerigo / Occupazione Militare Italiana: (It.) Italian Military Occupation of Cerigo; private overprint on stamps of Greece, Ionian Islands.
CERN: (Fr.) Centra Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire, European Center for Nuclear Research.
Cerná, Cerny: (Czech.) black (color) (adj.).
Cerna Hora: (Czech.) Montenegro.
Cernauti: overprint on semipostal stamps of Romania for the occupation of Cernauti, Bucovina, Aug. 1941.
Cerneala: (Rom.) ink.
Cernofialová: (Czech.) black-violet, black-purple (color).
Cernohnedá: (Czech.) black-brown (color).
Cernosedá: (Czech.) black-violet, blackish-grey (color).
Cerrado y Selado: (Sp.) closed and sealed, Mexican registration label.
Certificado: (Sp.) registered.
Certificado de Autenticidad: (Sp.) certificate from a recognized authority certifying the genuineness of a philatelic item.
Certificate: when issued by an acknowledged expert, or group of experts, it gives credence to the authenticity and condition of a stamp.
Certificate of Authenticity: certificate from a recognized authority certifying the genuineness of a philatelic item.
Certificate of Mailing: a receipt prepared by the mailer as proof of mailing, USPS term.
Certified Mail: 1: US 15¢ stamp, June 6, 1955, first use of Certified Mail in world, not valid for postage. 2: called Recorded Delivery in Britain. 3: mail for which a receipt is given to the sender at time of mailing.
Certifying Stamp: hand or rubber stamp applied to official mail to certify that it is on official business; used in Great Britain and some Commonwealth countries from the start of Penny Postage until 1983.
Cervantes: nickname for official stamp issue of Spain, Apr. 22, 1916.
Cerven: (Czech.) June.
Cervenec: (Czech.) July.
Cervená: (Czech.) red (color).
Cervenofialová: (Czech.) red-violet, red-purple (color).
Cervenohnedá: (Czech.) red-brown (color).
Cervenooranzová: (Czech.) red-orange (color).
Cerveny Kriz: (Czech.) Red Cross.
Cervera: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Ceska Republika, Cesky: (Czech.) Czech Republic, Czech (adj.). Proclaimed in 1992, becoming effective in 1993.
Ceská Socialistická Republika: (Czech.) Czech Socialist Republic. Post WWII government, with federal constitution adopted in 1968. New government formed in 1989; divided effective 1 January 1993 into the two separate countries of the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Ceskoslovenska: (Czech.) overprint on stamps of Austria for Czechoslovakia, semipostals.
Ceskoslovenska Interbrigády ve Spanelsku: (Czech.) refers to Czechoslovakian volunteer brigade postal history from the 1936-1939 Spanish Civil War.
Ceskoslovenska polní posta-Anglii: (Czech.) refers to the Czechoslovakian military forces in WWII-era Great Britain postal history.
Ceskoslovenska Polní Posta-Slovensko: (Czech.) refers to the Czechoslovakian Army in the WWI-era Slovakia fieldpost postal history.
Ceskoslovenska Polní Posta-Tesínko: (Czech.) (Ger. Teschen) refers to the Czechoslovakian Army in the WWI-era Tesínko (now Cesky Tesín) fieldpost postal history. Czechoslovakia and Poland disputed the territory, known as Eastern Silesia (q.v.), with portions being occupied in 1919 by the Czechs. The region was divided between the two nations by the 1920 Conference of Ambassadors, with the Czech section being ceded to Poland during the 1938 German-Czech crisis. After the 1920 division, the capital city of Teschen, divided by the Olsa River, was renamed, with the Czech city being Cesky Tesín, and the Polish city being Cieszyn; see Celistvosti – SO 1920.
Ceskoslovenska Republika: (Czech.) 1. Czechoslovakian Republic. 2. private overprint on stamps of Austria, Czechoslovakia.
Cesko Slovenska (Statni) Posta: (Czech.) unofficial issue on stamps of Austria or Hungary.
Ceskoslovenska Vojsko na Rusi: (Czech.) refers to the Czechoslovakian Army in the WWI-era Russia fieldpost postal history.
Ceskoslovenska vojsko ve Francii: (Czech.) refers to the Czechoslovakian Army in the WWI-era France fieldpost postal history.
Ceskoslovenska Vojsko v Itálii: (Czech.) refers to the Czechoslovakian Army in the WWI-era Italy fieldpost postal history.
Ceskoslovenske Armady Sibirske: (Czech.) Czech army post in Siberia.
Ceskoslovenske Vojsko na Rusi: (Czech.) Czechoslovak Legion in Siberia, Dec. 1919.
Ceskoslovensko, Ceskoslovensky: (Czech.) Czechoslovakia, Czechoslovakian (adj.). Republic formed in 1918 by Czechs and Slovaks from territories previously administered by the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Cesko Slovensky Stat: (Czech.) private overprint on stamps of Austria.
Cesky: (Czech.) Czech.
Ceskych Skautu: (Czech.) Czech Scouts inscription on Czechoslovakia issue in Oct. 1918; Boy Scouts distributed mail.
C. est de N.: Cartas Estrangeiros de Navios (Port.) foreign ship letter,1835.
Cestoda: British fantasy label.
Ceuta: see Spain.
Ceylan: (Fr., Sp.) Ceylon.
Ceylon: island in Indian Ocean, south of India, now Sri Lanka; Currency: 100 cents = 1 rupee (1872), 12 pence = 1 shilling 1795-post: ruled by Great Britain, 1802: made a Crown Colony by Great Britain, 1813: first handstamps, 1845: mail routed through India, 1857: No.1, 1 pence, blue, first stamp issued, 1869: first official stamp issued, 1918: first War Tax stamp issued, 1948, Feb. 4: Ceylon became independent within British Commonwealth, 1949, July 13: rejoined the UPU, 1956, May 10: first semipostal stamp, 1972, May 22: independent, named Republic of Sri Lanka.
Ceylon: 1: inscription “the F-word” unissued Great Britain cinderella by David Horry, 2001. 2: inscription Tamil Tiger, unissued Great Britain cinderella by David Horry, 2001.
CF: 1: Scott Catalogue prefix to identify air mail registration stamps. 2: Communauté Française (Fr.) French community. 3: Canadian Flight covers. 4: Correspondance Française, Colonies Françaises (Fr.) French Correspondence; French Colonies.
C.F.A.: 1: overprint on stamps of France for Colonies Françaises d’Afrique, currency in French African francs, 1945. 2: overprint on French issues for Reunion. 3: overprint on stamps of France for Communauté Financière Africaine (Fr.) Community of French Africa, 1960.
C.F.A. Franc: (French African Community franc) unit of currency in Benin, Burkino Faso, Cameroun, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, New Caledonia, Niger Republic, Senegal, Togo.
C.F.C.: Compagnia Fedelissima dei Corrieri (It.) Company of Most Reliable Couriers, private courier organization, Venice, 1771-92.
C.F.M.: Charles F. Malloy, BEP employee initials, 1906-1928; see Plate Finisher Initials, Siderographer.
C.F.P. Franc: (French Pacific Community franc) unit of currency used in French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Wallis & Futuna.
C.F.P.O.(S): see Canadian Forces Post Office(s).
C.F.P.U.: see Canadian Forces Postal Unit.
C.F.R.N.A.: the French-owned Cie. Franco-Roumaine de Navigation Aérienne airline, which conducted several international pioneer first flights in the early 1920s.
C.G.H.: used in Cape of Good Hope, complicated parallel line design to prevent washing of stamp for reuse, 1853-63.
C.G.H.S: Commission de Gouvernment Haute Silésie (Government of Upper Silesia) overprint on official stamps of Germany, for Upper Silesia, 1920-21.
C.G.R.: Cape Government Railways; overprint on stamps for railway mail from Caledon, Cape Province, 1911-12.
C Grill: grill used on US stamps in the 19th century.
C.G.T.: “Compagnie Generale Transatlantique” General Transatlantic Company, a French packet company that brought mail to and from the Danish West Indies, etc.
CH: 1: (followed by Oriental characters) Korea. 2: Colombla-SCADTA consular overprint for Chile. 3: (Fr.) abbreviation for “charnière(s)” hinge(s), hinged. 4: Court House, found in some early US postmarks. 5: House of Commons. 6: Correspondance Hollandaise (Fr.) Dutch, 1809. 7: surcharge on stamps of Iran, 1928. 8: international postal code for Switzerland.
Chabacano, Repoblik de: bogus labels for fictional republic in the Philippines, 1966.
Chabas: city in Egypt, Interpostal Seals used 1880-82, see Interpostal Seals.
Chachapoyas: overprint on stamps of Peru during war with Chile, 1884.
Chad: Central Africa, south of Libya; Official name of Postal Administration: Société Tchadienne des Postes et de l’Épargne (STPE) Currency: 100 centimes = 1 franc 1897-1914: occupied by France, used stamps of French Congo and Middle Congo, 1905-pre: military (free) franchise in effect, 1910: territories of Ubangi-Shari, Chad, Middle Congo and Gabon federated, but postal services remained separate, 1915: stamps of Middle Congo overprinted for use in Oubangui-Chari and Tchad, 1920, Mar.17: became separate French colony, 1922, Nov: ”Tchad” overprint on stamps of Middle Congo, No.1, 1 centime red-violet, “Afrique Equatoriale Française” overprint added with Tchad, 1928: first postage due stamp issued, 1934: colonies of Chad, Gabon, Middle Congo and Ubangi-Shari grouped as French Equatorial Africa, 1936-59: used stamps of French Equatorial Africa, 1958, Nov. 28: inscription “Republique du Tchad” as independent state in the French Union, 1959, Nov. 28: first stamps issued as Republic of Chad, 1960, Aug. 11: independence from France, 1960, Dec. 15: first air mail stamp issued, 1961, June 23: joined the UPU, 1962, Apr. 7: first semipostal stamp issued, 1964, Mar. 9: first air mail semipostal stamp issued, 1965: first military stamp issued, 1966: first official stamp issued.
Chad: little bit of paper punched out during perforating process.
Chad to Rhine: march during World War II; common design on stamps of the French Community of Nations, 1946.
Chaferinas Islands: see Spain.
Chahar: province in North China Liberation Area, 1937.
Chahi: unit of currency used in Persia (Iran).
Chain-Breakers: 1919 issues of Slovenia, man breaking chains in newfound freedom.
Chainmail: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
Chair: (Fr.) flesh (color).
Chakasia: bogus Russian local post overprint.
Chala: town on southern coast of Peru; overprint on stamps of Peru, provisional issue, 1884.
Chalco: overprint used on stamps of Mexico for this district during 1856-1883.
Chalcography: act of engraving a design on copper or brass for use as an intaglio printing plate.
Chalka: city in Egypt, Interpostal Seals used 1879-80, see Interpostal Seals.
Chalki: see Greece.
Chalk Paper: stamp paper which has a coating of chalk or clay on the surface, introduced by De La Rue to prevent reuse of stamps after washing off cancel, 1902.
Chalky Paper: whiter paper used on British stamps to improve their appearance, should not be soaked because design may deteriorate, April 1962.
Chalmers, James: (1782-1853) unsuccessful British claimant as inventor of the postage stamp.
Chalon Heads: Alfred Chalon’s coronation bust portrait of Queen Victoria appears on many British Dominions and Colonies issues.
Chalons-sur-Marne: local post provisional, France, 1944.
Chaluf-el-Taraba: city in Egypt, Interpostal Seals used 1868, see Interpostal Seals.
Chamba: northern India Convention State; 1846: became independent of Kashmir, 1886: No.1, 1/2 anna green, first stamps with “Chamba State” overprint valid throughout India, 1886: first official stamp issued, 1950, Apr.1: Republic of India convention states stamps used, 1950, Dec. 31: convention states stamps no longer valid, 1951, Jan. 1: overprint on stamps of British India for use to any point in British India.
Chambery: local post provisional, France, 1944.
Chambon Press: web-fed press that uses continuous paper, with built-in perforating capability; used in Australia.
Chameleon Paper: security paper with a pigmentation that changes with attempts to remove the cancellation.
Chamois: (Fr.) buff (color).
Chamousset, Claude-Humbert Piarron de: established La Petite Poste, the small post, in Paris with 117 carriers and made deliveries three times a day, 1758.
Champion of Champions (C of C): Grand Award winners from APS World Series (national) stamp shows are eligible to compete in the annual C of C competition.
Championship Class: International Federation of Philately (FIP) exhibit category from any class of exhibiting, that received 95 or more points in any three separate years during previous ten years.
Champions of Liberty: series of US stamps honoring foreign nationals who sought freedom in their homelands, 1950s-60s.
Champion, Theodore: French dealer who specialized in rarities and had several monarchs as his client, 1873-1954.
Champlain Press: used by J.W. Fergusson & Sons, a subcontractor for Stamp Venturers, prints using a layout of 13 rows of 33 stamps
Chan: catalogue of stamps of China.
Chandawil: city in Egypt, Interpostal Seals used 1884, see Interpostal Seals.
Chandernagore: see India.
Changeling: an ink color change due to exposure to bright light, chemical fumes, heat or other causes; greens, reds, violets and yellows are especially prone to change.
Chankianshih (Kwangchowwan): see China.
Channel Islands: south of Great Britain, east of France, British crown dependency comprised of Alderney, Brechou, Guernsey, Herm, Jersey, Jethou and Sark; 1840, May 8: first stamps, those of Great Britain, Maltese Cross cancellations used, 1840s: handstamps in France also used during this period, 1850: captains of private ships were paid to carry mail between France and islands, mail to be deposited in movable boxes, 1940, June 30: occupied by Germany, 1940, Dec. 27-Feb. 22, 1941: Guernsey stamps bisected and used due to stamp shortage, 1941, Apr. 1: Jersey local post issue, 1941, Apr. 7: Guernsey local post issue, 1945, May 10: islands back to Britain, local post stamps valid for one year, 1945-1969: Herm island owner issued local post stamps, 1947: fiscal stamps issued, 1948, Aug. 18: Channel Islands two stamp issue, with no inscription except denomination, marking third anniversary of liberation from German occupation, 1969, Oct. 1: Jersey and Guernsey issued their own stamps, British stamps not valid, 1983, June 14: Alderney issued own stamps.
Channel Isles and Man: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
Channel Isles, Mail to the: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
Channel Mail Service: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
Chantada: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Nationalist forces, 1937.
Chapel Hill, N. C. Paid 5: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Chapman & Co. Express: local parcel firm serviced Boston and Marblehead, Mass., 1889.
Chapters, APS: local philatelic clubs, independent in their own right, which are also official chapters of the American Philatelic Society (APS); Chicago Philatelic Society has been a chapter since Oct. 10, 1887; see American Philatelic Society, APS.
Chargé (e) (Lettre, Colis): (Fr.) registered (letter, package).
Charge Marks / Labels: manuscript, stamped black figures, or labels were used for unpaid letters to indicate amount to be paid by recipient, red figures were used for paid letters, pre-1840,
Chargement: (Fr.) registration, insurance.
Charity Stamps / Stationery: non-postal validity labels resembling stamps sold by charity groups to raise funds, first used in 1860 for Garibaldi’s Sicilian campaign, may be considered a cinderella. Sold at more than the inscribed face value, with the difference between the face value and the selling price used for charity work; called semipostal stamps; Great Britain sold postal stationery in 1890 for a shilling with only 1d postage, balance going to a charity for postal widows and orphans.
Charity Surcharge: overprint denoting an addition to the postage fee as a contribution to a charitable purpose.
Charkhari: Central India Feudatory State; 1894: No.1, 1 anna green, first local post stamps, 1950, Apr. 30: separate stamps discontinued, 1950, May 1: replaced by stamps of the Republic of India.
Charleroi-1911: overprint on stamps of Belgium for national anti-tuberculosis group.
Charleston: 1: city in West Virginia, home of Carriers’ Stamp firms Honour’s, Martin’s, Steinmeyer’s and Beckman posts. 2: city in South Carolina, occupied by the British from May 12, 1780 until Dec. 14, 1782.
Charleston, S.C. 5 cts, 10¢: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Charlottesville, Va. Paid 5: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Charnela: (Sp.) hinge, small piece of gummed glassine or parchment paper used by collectors for mounting stamps on album pages.
Charnière: (Fr.) hinge, small piece of gummed glassine or parchment paper used by collectors for mounting stamps on album pages.
Chartered: (Eng.) licensed.
Chase & Co’s Express: local post serviced New York City; used a label, year unknown.
Chase, A.W. Dr., Son & Co.: US medicine stamp inscription; see Private Die Proprietary Stamps.
Chasquis: (Sp.) runners, who carried memorized verbal messages from one relay station to the next, employed by the Spanish in Peru, 1532.
Chat: (Fr.) cat, thematic subject.
Châtain: (Fr.) chestnut (color).
Chateau de Malmaison: (Fr.) label for Paris stamp exhibition, 1944.
Chateau-Renault: local post provisional, France, 1944.
Chatellerault: local post provisional, France, 1944.
Chatham Islands: islands 500 miles east of Christchurch, New Zealand; 1970, Dec.: two stamps with Chatham islands inscription valid throughout New Zealand.
Chatham Square Post Office: carrier service, independent of USPO, operated by Aaron Swarts, successor Benjamin Lockwood, 1847-56, 1856-59.
Chattanooga, Ten. Paid 5: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Chauchina: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Nationalist forces, 1936-37.
Chausey: Channel Island, has cachet, no postmark, no postal validity.
Cheap Postage Association: formed in 1843 calling for postal reforms, called Friends of Cheap Postage; brought lower rates in 1845.
Chechen Republic: autonomous territory within Russia; 1992: some local post stamps may have been used within area, 2002, Jan. 14: illegal labels purporting to be stamps, not valid for postage, UPU report.
Checiny: city in Poland issued local post stamps in 1919 authorized by municipal authorities.
Check Letters: letters found in the corners of the early British stamps, 1840-1902, as a precaution against forgery and re-use.
Checklist: list of stamps, usually compiled by a collector, of philatelic and thematic items that are needed.
Check Stamp: a revenue stamp usually applied to checks, used as postage in British Central Africa in 1898.
Checoslovaquia: (Sp.) Czechoslovakia.
Cheever & Towle: US local post, Boston, Mass., 1849(?).
Chefoo: local post, China treaty port, 1893-97.
Chekiang: province in the East China Liberation area, 1940.
Cheltex P.S.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
Chelva: city in Spain, local post, Civil War, 1937.
Chelyabinsk: city in Siberia, Russia; 1920-22: stamps of Russian overprinted for local post use by municipal authorities.
Chembary: city in Russia, Zemstvo local post; 1874-88, see Zemstvo.
Chemically Synthetic Gum: originally used for wood glues, binders, etc., found its way into postage stamps in the 1970s; curl is controllable, but it does not stick to paper as quickly as arabic gum.
Chemical Reaction: change of color during printing process when a printing plate is wiped and chemically alters the color; result is considered printer’s waste.
Chemin de Fer Electrique EB / Bruxelles á Tervueren: (Fr..) overprint for electric train between Brussels and Tervueren.
Chemin du Roi: (Fr.) (King’s Way) relay stations for mail that offered lodging and changes of horse and carriage.
Chemins de Fer: (Fr.) inscription / handstamp, Belgium railway parcel post stamps, issued May 1, 1879.
Chemins de Fer de l’Etat Belge: (Fr.) Belgium state railway stamp.
Chemins de fer / Spoorwegen: (Fr./Flem.) inscription on Belgium railway parcel post stamps.
Chemnitz: local post, city in Germany, 1945-48.
Cheney & Co’s Express: private mail and parcel firm serviced Boston, Mass.; New Hampshire, Vermont and Montreal, Canada; used embossed and printed corner cards, labels; 1842-66.
Cheney, Fiske & Co’s Express: private mail and parcel firm serviced Boston, Mass.; New Hampshire, Vermont and Montreal, Canada; used labels, 1855-67.
Cheney, Hill & Co’s Express: private mail firm serviced Boston, Mass. and New England towns; used a corner card; 1854.
Cheney, Rice & Co’s Express: private mail firm serviced Boston, Mass. and New England towns into Canada; used a label, 1850s.
Cheng-chow: local post, city in Central China, 1948-49.
Cheng-yang-kwan: local post, city in East China, 1949.
Chen-Ning: local post, city in Southwest China, 1949.
Chen-Yuan: local post, city in Southwest China, 1949.
Cheque: (British) check.
Cheque Stamps: fiscal stamp inscription to confirm payable Stamp Duty; 1855-1971: used on checks, 1898: used as postage in Nyasaland, canceled by postal clerks when affixed to letters.
Cherbine: city in Egypt, Interpostal Seals used 1872-84, see Interpostal Seals.
Cherbourg: local post provisional, France, 1944.
Cherdyn: city in Russia, Zemstvo local post; 1889-1918, see Zemstvo.
Cherepovets: city in Russia, Zemstvo local post; 1869-1912, see Zemstvo.
Cherifian Local Post: semi-official local post of Morocco, 1912-13, see Morocco.
Cherkassy: city in Russia, Zemstvo local post; 1879, see Zemstvo.
Cherkes(s)ia: bogus Russian issue, not valid for postage.
Chern: city in Russia, Zemstvo local post; 1871-75, see Zemstvo.
Cherokee Nation: 1: original Cherokees lived in Ga., Ala., N. & S. Carolina, Tenn., Ky., and W. Va.; forcibly moved to Indian territory (now Oklahoma) in 1838-39. 2: bogus, island in the Rio Grande that was going to declare independence.
Cherry Blossom Stamps: Japanese issues depicting cherry blossoms as part of the design,1872.
Cherry Picking: art of buying a stamp or a cover at the seller’s asking price even though you know it is worth a lot more.
Cherry Red Airline: local post, Canada,1929.
Cherry Tree P.S.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
Cherubini: Italian Air Mail catalog.
Cheshire Lines Committee: British local railway post.
Cheste: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Chesuncook Lake Tourists Despatch: US local post, Maine, 1886.
Chetrum: unit of currency used in Bhutan.
Cheun: unit of currency used in Bhutan.
Chewing Gum Booklet: nickname for small stamp booklets produced by Canada, 1943-53.
CHI: international postal code for Chile.
Chiapas: state in Mexico issued stamps during 1866 revolution; 1856-1883; overprint used on stamps of Mexico for this district, 1866: No.1, 1/2 real black, 1995: issued two local post stamps.
Chiaro: (It.) light (color).
Chibin-el-Anater: city in Egypt, Interpostal Seals used 1879-84, see Interpostal Seals.
Chibin-el-Com: city in Egypt, Interpostal Seals used 1868-84, see Interpostal Seals.
Chibriket: city in Egypt, Interpostal Seals used 1880-82, see Interpostal Seals.
Chicago Counterfeits: forged US 1894 2¢ stamps detected by Chicago Postal Inspectors from ad in paper.
Chicago Dime Express Co.: local parcel firm serviced Chicago; used a stamp, 1884-85.
Chicago Match Co.: inscription on US match stamp; see Private Die Proprietary Stamps.
Chicago Penny Post: US local post, Charles W. Mappa, formerly Floyd’s Penny Post, Chicago, IL.,1862.
Chicago Perforations: imperforate stamps privately-perforated by Elijah W. Hadley, a Chicago dentist; first US stamps perforated by a true perforating machine, June 1855.
Chiclayo: “Franca” (Sp.) paid overprint on stamps of Peru for use in Chile, 1884.
Chiffre: 1: (with value in piastre) Turkey postage due. 2: (without country name) France (perforated) postage due. 3: (without country name) French Colonies (imperforate) postage due. 4: (Fr.) numeral.
Chiffre Taxe: (Fr.) inscription on postage due labels of France, French colonies and Turkey, post-1859.
Chiffre Taxe a Perçevoir: (Fr.) inscription on postage due labels of Egypt, post-1884
Chihuahua: state in Mexico; 1856-83: overprint used on stamps of Mexico, 1872: No.1, 12 centavos black, issued stamps during revolt to drive French ou of state, 1914: district in Mexico which issued revolutionary stamps.
Child & Co’s Express: local post serviced Boston, Mass., and Portland, Maine into Canada; used labels, 1843-49.
Child & Kent Express: local parcel firm serviced Boston, and Lynn, Mass.; used a label.
Children’s Charity Stamps: semipostals for children’s charities; most popular are “Pro Juventute” (Switzerland since 1913) and “Kinderzegels” (Holland since 1924); also known as Child Welfare Stamp.
Children’s Playtime Postage: see Children’s Stamps, Toy Stamps.
Children’s Stamps: stamps designed by children and issued by various countries since 1958.
Chile: southern South America between Argentina and Peru; Official name of postal administration: Correos de Chile Currency: 100 centavos = 1 peso, 100 milesimos = 100 centesimos = 1 escudo (1960), 100 centavos = 1 peso (1975) 1748: monthly mail service started between Santiago and Buenos Aires, 1810, Sep. 11: independence from Spain, 1817-18: became independent nation, 1840: regular coastal mail service started, expanded to packet mail, 1853, July 1: No.1, 5 centavos brown-red, first stamps with “Colon” inscription, 1865-81: stamps of Great Britain used at Valparaiso, 1881, Apr. 1: joined the UPU, 1891, Apr. 21: revenue stamps used for postage, 1891, July 10-Sep. 5, 1891: no charge for internal mail due to stamp shortage, 1894: first acknowledgment of receipt, postage due stamps, 1900, 1901, 1913: revenue stamps used for mail due to stamp shortage, 1907: first official stamp issued, 1927: first air mail stamp issued, 1940, Mar.1: first semipostal stamp issued, 1957, Apr. 8: first parcel post postal tax stamp, 1961, Apr. 29: first air mail semipostal stamp, 1970: first postal tax stamp, 1990: freely elected president installed.
Chile: (Czech.) Chile
(Czech.) Chilean.
Chilean Occupation of Peru: stamps of Peru overprinted with arms of Chile, 1881.
Chili: (Fr.) Chile.
Chill Roller Doubling: a double impression left on the printed stamp caused by a set-off from the chill roller.
Chill Rollers: rollers that help cool the web after stamps have been printed, in order to prepare the press for another step.
Chilsky: (Czech.) Chile, Chilean.
Chimarra (Himera): provisional issue of Epirus during Greek occupation, Feb.1914-19.
Chimborazo Riobamba: control overprint on stamps of Ecuador, 1902.
Chimeneas: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Nationalist forces, 1937-38.
China: Eastern Asia, between North Korea and Vietnam; Official name of postal administration: State Post Bureau Currency: 10 candareen = 1 mace, 10 mace = 1 tael, 100 cents = 1 dollar, yuan (1897), 100 fen = 1 yuan (1949) 4000 BC: oldest postal system in world, used by court officials, 2000 BC: paper first used as writing material, 1122-255 BC: Chou Dynasty had a postal system, 13th Century AD: Marco Polo claimed the I-Chan government had 10,000 post stages, called Min Hsin Chu, made up of letter guilds, carried unofficial mails, 1402: Chinese Ming Emperor Yung opened the Imperial Courier Service to private Chinese citizens to send private letters, 1727: Treaty of Kyakhta permitted mail exchanges between China and Russia, 1858: foreign diplomatic couriers permitted, 1878: No.1, 1 candareen green, China issued its own “large Dragons” stamps, Imperial Maritime Customs Post issue, many local post, sectional, inflation and occupation issues, 1878-82: all mail for foreign destinations routed through Shanghai, 1896: Imperial Postal Service put private carriers out of business, 1897: Imperial post started as nationwide postal system, 1912: first postage due stamp issued, 1914-pre: all mail to foreign destinations had to pass through foreign post offices, Imperial Chinese post offices handled foreign stamps which could be used in combination with Chinese stamps, or uaed a handstamp, 1914, March 1: joined the UPU, includes Hong Kong, Macao, 1917: Japan awarded the Shantung territory, Japan withdrew in 1922, 1922: foreign countries stopped using their own systems for mail sent abroad, 1927, Apr.18: Nationalist government under Chiang Kai-Shek, 1932: Japan occupied Manchuria and renamed it Manchukuo, 1932: first semipostal, air mail stamps issued, 1940: Japan invaded China proper controlling the coastal areas, 1940-43: stamp stock surcharged by provincial officials, 1940s: inflation issue included a $5 million stamp, WWII-post: Japan evacuated occupied Chinese territories, 1945-49: Nationalist and Communist areas issued inflation provisional stamps, 1949, Jan.-Oct.: Liberation Area issued its own regional issues, 1949, May 1: non-denominated stamps with face value determined by date of sale at post office, five numbers in lower margin indicate: 1. issue number. 2. total stamps in set. 3. position of stamp. 4. cumulative number of stamp. 5. year of issue, 1949, Oct. 1: People’s Republic of China formed 1949, Oct. 8: No.1, 30 dollar, blue, first of own stamps for entire nation, 1950, June 30: regional issues ordered not to be sold with one-year cut-off, Northeast and Port Arthur-Darien exempted due to different currencies, 1950, Sep.1: first postage due stamp issued, 1950, Dec. 31: Northeast and Port Arthur-Darien ceased separate issues, 1951, May 1: first air mail stamp issued, 1951, May: separate issues discontinued in Northeast China, unified issues only, 1953, Aug. first military stamp, 1955, Mar.1: reprints put on sale to public, 1960-pre: all stamps were issued without gum, with few exceptions, 1963, Aug. 24: changed affiliation with the UPU, Mongolia became independent, 1970-pre: canceled-to-order stamps exist in quantity, 1984, Feb. 16: first semi-postal stamp, 1987: used stamps for philatelic market ceased, 1995, Mar. 1: reprints offered for sale by the Philatelic Agency, 1997, July 1: Hong Kong returned to China as administrative district; Hong Kong stamps continued; see China, Regional Issues; Taiwan.
China: 1: overprint on stamps of Germany, Offices in China. 2: China Post inscription for People’s Republic of China. 3: overprint on stamps of Hong Kong, 1917-1927, British Offices abroad.
China, Boxer Uprising: 1900, June: Nationalist uprising against foreign influence in China resulted in a siege of the international legations in Peking and an attack of the international settlements in Tientsin, 1900, July: Troops from nine countries (American, Australian, Austro-Hungarian, British, French, German, Italian, Japanese and Russian) assembled to fight the Boxers, 1900, Aug.: International force lifts the siege of Peking; Boxers dispersed; Allied occupation of North China, 1900, Sept.-Aug. 15, 1901: Some mail was “Free,” while others required domestic rate postage; Britain issued stamps of India overprinted “C.E.F.”(China Expeditionary Force), 1901, Sep.: Peace Protocol of Peking signed by China, ending the intervention.
China, British Offices: 1844: consular treaty port post offices opened, 1862-post: all mail canceled “B62″ in Hong Kong, 1862-1917: stamps of Hong Kong used, 1917: No.1, 1 cent brown; overprint “China” on stamps of Hong Kong, valid in Hong Kong, and treaty ports, 1922, Nov. 30: all offices were closed except for Wei-hai-wei, 1930, Oct. 1: stamps withdrawn, offices handed back to China.
China, Central: provinces of Honan, Hunan, Hupen, Kansu; 1949, May: No.1, 100 yuan dark carmine, No. 1, 1 cent on 20 yuan red-brown, 1949, Aug.: No.1, non-denominated orange.
China, Central Liberation Area: provinces of Honan, Hupen, Hunan and Kiangsi; 1949, Fall: postal service started with currency surcharges.
China Clay Paper: paper with a high mineral content used for the US Washington-Franklin stamps, 1908-09.
China, East: provinces of Anhwei, Chekiang, Fukien 1949: No.1, 1 cent on 500 yuan blue-green, Kiangsu 1949, No.1, 30,000 yuan chocolate, and Shantung,
China, East Liberation Area: provinces of Shantung, Kiangsu, Chekiang, Annwei and Fukien; 1941: postal service established, 1948, Mar.: first stamps, 1948, July: became East China Posts and Telegraph General Office, 1949, May 30: East China Liberation Area stamps issued.
China Expeditionary Force: stamps of India overprinted “C.E.F.” 1900, Aug.-Nov. 25, 1923: used by Indian and British troops during Boxer rebellion, stamps continued being used after 1906.
China, Formosa: see Taiwan.
China, French Offices: Currency: 100 centimes = 1 franc, 100 cents = 1 piaster, 100 cents = 1 dollar 1862-94: used stamps of France overprinted “Chine,” Shanghai (Nov. 1862); Tientsin (March, 1889); Chefoo (Nov. 1898); Hankow (agency Nov. 1898, PO Oct. 1902); Peking (Dec. 1900); Amoy (Jan. 1902); Foochow, (1902); Ningpo (1902). 1894: No.1, 5 centimes green, 1894-1922: “Chine” (Fr.) overprint / surcharge stamps of France, 1901-19: No.1, 1 centime lilac-blue, Canton, Hoi-Hao, Mongtseu (Mengtsz), Pakhoi, Tchong- King (Chungking), Yunnan Fou (Kunming) overprint / surcharge stamps of Indo-China, 1903-22: “A Percevoir” (Fr.) to collect, overprint / surcharge on postage due stamps of France, 1906, Oct.-1941: No.1, 1 centime olive-green, “Kwang-Chow,” (Kouang Tcheou-Wan) overprint / surcharge stamps of Indo-China stamps used for French naval base, 1922, Dec. 31: all post offices closed.
China, German Offices: 1898, Jan. 26: No.1, 3 pfenning dark brown, overprint on stamps of Germany, overprint plus surcharge, “5pf” for use in Foochow and Tientsin, 1898, Mar. 6: Kiaochow (Kiautschou) leased to Germany, 1914, Nov. 7: Kiaochow (Kiautschou) surrendered to Japan, 1917, Mar. 17: all post offices closed.
China-handstempel: (Ger.) Tientsien provisional issue.
China, Hong Kong: administrative region, July 1, 1997: No. 1, $1.30 multi.
China, Indian Forces: 1900: overprinted “C.E.F.” on stamps of India; see China Expeditionary Forces.
China, Indo-Chinese Offices: French post offices in China; see Canton, Chungking L.P.O., Hoihow, Mongtze (Mengtsze), Pakhoi, Yunnanfu (Kunming).
China, Italian Offices: Currency: 100 centesimi – 1 lira 1874: No.1 1 centesimi olive-green, 1917, Sep.-Dec. 31, 1922: used stamps of Italy, 1917, Sep.; No.1, 2¢ on 5¢ green, stamps of Italy overprinted “Pechino,” for Peking. 1917, Sep.; No.1, 2¢ green, overprinted Tientsin.
China, Japanese Occupation: stamps of China overprinted plus occupation issues, 20th century in Chinese characters: Kwangtung Province including Canton; Inner Mongolia, including North Shansi, South Chara and Suiyuna; North China including Honan, Hopei, Meng Chiang, Shansi, Shantung and Supeh; Nanking and Shanghai including Anhwei, Chekiang, Fukien, Hunan, Hupe and Kiangsi. 1942: stamps of China overprinted.
China, Japanese Offices: 1876, Apr. 15- 31 Dec.1899: overprint on stamps of Japan with Chinese characters, 1900, Jan.: first stamps issued, 1922, Nov. 30: offices closed 1945: issued stamps for Taiwan (Formosa).
China, Liaoning: Port Arthur and Dairen, overprinted stamps of Japan and Manchukuo,1946.
China, Macao: 1999, Dec. 20: issued stamps as People’s Republic of China region; see Macao.
China, North: provinces of Chahar, Hopeh, Shansi and Suiyuan.
China, Northeastern Provinces: Manchurian towns: 1946, Feb.: first stamps, No.1, 50¢ on 5 yuan violet-red, China, Northern Liberation Area: provinces of Lianoning, Kirin, Jehol and Heilungkiang (aka Manchuria under Japanese); No.1, 1 dollar violet, local post overprint on stamps of Manchukuo,
China, North Liberation Area: provinces of Hopen, Chahar, Shansi and Suiyuan; 1937, Dec.: postal service started, 1946, Mar.: first stamp, 1949, May: renamed North China Postal and Telegraph Administration.
China, Northwest: provinces of Ningsia, Sinkiang, Tsinghai, 1949, May: No.1, 1 cent on 100 yuan orange, Shensi (west portion) 1949, May: No.1, 500 yuan blue-green.
China, Northwest Liberation Area: provinces of Tsinghai, Ningsia and part of Shensi; 1936, Oct.: established territory, 1949: Sinkiang added to the group, 1945, Mar.: first stamps, 1949, June 13: “People’s Post Shensi” overprint, 1949, Oct.: “People’s Post Kansu” and “People’s Post Sinkiang” overprint, 1949, Oct. 15: Northwest Peoples Post started.
China: North West People’s Post: area in northwest China, now China People’s Republic, 1949, Oct. 15. issued first and only stamps.
China, Offices in Manchuria: 1927: 1/2 centime black-brown, stamps of China overprinted.
China, Offices in Tibet: currency: 12 pies = 1 anna, 16 annas = 1 rupee 1911: No.1, 1 pie on 1c ocher.
China Paper: see India Paper.
China, Port Arthur and Darien: 1946, Apr.: Liaoning postal administration established with overprint on stamps of Manchukuo and Japan.
China, Regional Issues: considered post-World War II to 1949.
China, Republic of: see Taiwan.
China, Russian offices: Currency: 100 kopecks = 1 ruble, 100 cents = 1 dollar (1917) 1870: stamps of Russia used, 1876: post offices established by Chinese National Postal System in five major cities, 1899: No.1, 1 kopeck orange, stamps of Russia overprinted (KHTAH) in the Cyrillic alphabet, 1917-20: stamps of Russia surcharged, 1920: post offices closed.
China, South: provinces of Hainan Island, Kwangsi and Kwantung, 1949, Nov.: South China Postal and Telegraph Administration started, 1949, Nov. 1: first stamp.
China, Southwest: provinces of Kweichow, Sikang, Szechwan, Yunnan and Tibet; 1926, No. 1, 1/2 cent black brown. 1933: No. 1, 1 cent orange, Tibet and Yunnan, 1949, Nov. 15: Southwest Postal and Telegraph Administration started 1949, Dec.: first stamps as Southwest China.
China Treaty Ports: established in various Treaty ports: Amoy (1895), Chefoo (1893), Chunkiang (1894), Foochow (1895), Hankow (1893), Ichang (1895), Kewkiang (1894), Nanking (1896), Wuhu (1894) and Shanghai (1865), closed in 1897 with start of Imperial Post.
China, United States Offices: 1867, Aug. 3: US post office opened in the General Consulate in Shanghai, postage charged at international rates of 10¢ for letters, paid for with American stamps, 1887, Dec. 11: second post office opened in Tientsin, closed Sept. 3, 1889, 1903: postage rates reduced to domestic rates, 1919, July 1: overprint / surcharge “Shanghai / China” in Chinese dollar on US stamps for use in Shanghai mail to the US, 1922, Dec.31: overprinted stamps withdrawn, all foreign post offices closed in China. 1929-31: (USMC) Marine Corps patrol at Peiping, China.
Chin-Cha-Ki: local post, north Chinese, 1946.
Chinchilla: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Chine: 1. (Fr.) 1904-22: overprint on stamps of France and Indo-China, for France, Offices in China, post offices located at Canton, Hoi Hao, Kouang-Tcheou, Mongtseu, Pakhoi, Tchongking and Yunnan Fou. 2. (Rom.) China.
Chinese Empire: inscription used on stamps of China, 1909.
Chinese Imperial Post: inscription on stamps of China, 1898-1912.
Chinese National Postal System: began with opening to the general public of special courier service between five major Chinese cities, 1876.
Chinese Skull and Crossbones: 5 stamps of China depicting a skull and crossbones, labels, were never issued.
Chinezesc: (Rom.) Chinese.
Chinkiang: treaty port local post, China.
Chin-Ki-Lu-Yu: local post, North China, 1940-46.
Chin-nan: local post, North China, 1949.
Chios (Khios): Aegean Island captured by Greece from Turkey in 1912, Balkan War; 1913, May: No.1, 25 lira ultramarine overprint on stamp of Greece for Chios;.
Chipre: (Sp.) Cyprus.
Chiriqui: province anniversary overprint on stamps of Panama, 1949.
Chisinau: overprint on semipostal stamps of Romania for occupation of Chisinau, Bessarabia, Aug. 1941.
Chistopol: city in Russia, Zemstvo local post; 1906-12, see Zemstvo.
Chita Issue: Siberia, name for Far Eastern Republic issues of 1921 and 1922.
Chiva: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Chokin Kyoku: Indonesia savings stamp, Japanese occupation.
Choklad: (Dan., Nor., Swed.) chocolate (color).
Chokoladebrun: (Dan., Nor., Swed.) chocolate brown (color).
Cholerabrief: (Ger.) cholera letter (with disinfection markings, or slits).
Cholm: local provisional, German occupation, c1918.
Chop: Japanese characters typically used by officers to validate stamps of territories occupied by Japanese troops during WW I and WWII; used until official occupation stamps became available, also used in Ryuku Islands.
Chopped Cover: an envelope that has been used, cut down in size, removing initial address and postage, and reused.
Chorpenning, George and Woodward, Absalom: predecessor to Pony Express; 1851, Apr. 25: US contracted to have mail carried once each month between Salt Lake and Sacramento. Woodward killed by Indians in first year of service, route changed so mail went from Salt Lake to San Pedro and then on a steamer to San Francisco. In 1858, four-horse coaches were used.
Chorrillos Lima Callao: Peru.
Chorvatsko: (Czech.) Croatia.
Chorvatsky: (Czech.) Croatian.
Chosen: Japanese name once used for Korea, along with Corea, Tyosen, Tae Han.
Chouze-sur-Loire: local provisional, France, 1944.
CH Post, Hounslow: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
C.H.R.: Charles H. Roll, BEP employee initials, 1906-1928; see Plate Finisher Initials, Siderographer.
Christiania: (or Kristiania, now Oslo [q.v.]) local post established by Adams’s Express, a branch of the same company that operated in Copenhagen (q.v. Copenhagen -Adam’s Expres Local Post), with lithographed 10 øre and 20 øre “Adams Expres / Kristiania” local stamps depicting a dog carrying a parcel in its mouth issued in 188(?).
Christian Commission: operated during the American Civil War, performed duties of chaplains.
Christiansburg, Va. Paid 5¢: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Christianssund: (or Christiansund, or Kristiansund) seaport in Møre of Romsdal county in W Norway WSW of Trondheim, and ca. 265 miles NNW of Oslo. Site of 19th century local posts established by M. Andresen & Co., and J. C. Bruun (q.v. individual local post entries).
Christianssund – J. C. Bruun Local Post: Local post re-organized by J. C. Bruun as the successorr company to the M. Andresen Local Post (q.v.) company. Similar in design to those of the Andresen company, 5 øre “Christianssunds Bypost” local stamps in several colors issued 1 March 1887, followed by 1, 2, 3, and 10 øre carmine stamps issued in January 1889.
Christianssund – M. Andresen Local Post: Local post established by M. Andresen & Co., with first “Christianssunds Bypost / M. Andresen & Co.” typographed local stamps issued 1 September 1878, and various others issued through 1879.
Christianssunds Bypost: Norway local post, 1878-89.
Christkindl: postmarks and labels used for mail and balloon mail from the Austrian post office of Christkindl at Christmas.
Christmas Charity Post Stamps: scout and church group stamps in Britain permitting charities to carry Christmas and New Year cards between Nov. 26 and Jan.1 each year, started 1981.
Christmas Day Delivery: special British cancel for mail to be deposited in advance for delivery Christmas Day, 1902-09.
Christmas Island: Southeastern Asia, south of Indonesia; Currency: 100 cents = 1 Australian dollar 1643: named for the day of its discovery, 1888: annexed by Great Britain, 1900-58: under British colony of Singapore, used stamps of Straits Settlements and Singapore, WW II: British and America troops used stamps of their respective nations, 1958: Australia took over Christmas island from Singapore, 1958: provisionals overprinted and surcharged in Malayan currency, 1958, Oct. 15: No.1, 2 cent yellow-orange, 1963, Aug. 28: sovereignty to UK transferred, first stamps with Christmas Island inscription. Note: there is also a Christmas Island that is part of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands.
Christmas Island Australia: bogus booklets that have no official status, not connected with Australia Post.
Christmas Island Mail Boat Service: local post, 1915?-1938.
Christmas Mail: British Post Office plan whereby mail could be deposited in advance for delivery on Christmas Day, 1902-09.
Christmas 1991 USA: United States non-denominated postage stamps, 29¢, 1991 (6 designs); see Merry Christmas 1975.
Christmas Post Stamps: private labels authorized by the British government for various scouting organizations to print and sell as a fund raising project, 1981.
Christmas Seal: charity label used to raise funds, first placed on sale in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 1904, US, 1907;
Christmas Stamp, Earliest US: issued Nov.1, 1962, Scott No.1205.
Christmas Stamps: special postage stamps issued for use on mail during the holiday season, first stamps for use on greeting cards were issued by Austria in 1937.
Christmas Stamps, Compulsory: Costa Rica concept for use on Christmas mail in1959.
Christmas USA 1981: United States non-denominated postage stamp, value 20¢, 1981; see Season’s Greetings USA 1981.
Christmas US Postage: United States non-denominated stamp, value 10¢, 1975.
Chr. IX: (Dan.) King Christian IX.
Chr. X: (Dan.) King Christian X (1870-1947, reigned 1912-1947).
Chromed: after a printing sleeve is hardened, a coating of chrome is applied to help give the metal sleeve a longer life.
Chrome Era: derived from “Kodochrome,” from 1939 to present, US version postcard.
Chromegelb: (Ger.) chrome yellow (color).
Chrome Plating: covering engraved steel plates with a thin layer of chromium in order to make them last longer.
Chrome Stain: printing variety caused by the chrome plating stripping off the printing plate.
Chromgul: (Dan.) chrome yellow (color).
Chromolithography: two or more colors printed at the same time via lithography; Switzerland Canton issue of 1843 is an example.
Chr. Sunds Bypost: Norway local post.
Chr. X: (Dan.) King Christian X (1870-1947, reigned 1912-1947).
Ch. Taxe O.M.F. Syrie: (Fr.) chiffre taxe, postage due overprint on stamps of France for offices in Turkey, Syria.
Chuashia: bogus Russian issue.
Chuckram: unit of currency used in the Indian state of Travancore.
Chungking: local post established by Archibald John Little, 1893-95.
Chungking L.P.O.: stamps of Indo-China overprinted for Tchongking, 1903-04, see China, Indo-Chinese Offices.
Churchill: common design on stamps of the British Commonwealth of Nations, 1966.
Church Mail: priests of the Icelandic State Church were permitted to use official stamps on their mail with the condition that they were for official use only, 1873.
Chuvashia, Republic of: illegal labels, purporting to be stamps, not valid for postage, UPU report on Jan. 14, 2002.
C.H.X.: Charing Cross, London; 1829-58.
Chybotisk: (Czech.) printing error).
Chypre: (Fr.) Cyprus.
CIA Invert: term applied to a US stamp featuring a candlestick holder that was found upside down by CIA employees when buying stamps at their local USPS post office, Sc.1610c.
C.I.C.I.: Congress of the International Colonial Institute, overprint on stamps of Portugal, 1933.
Ciecholinek: city in German-occupied Russian Poland, local post overprint, 1918-20.
Cie. Franco-Roumaine de Navigation Aérienne: see C.F.R.N.A..
Ciemny: (Pol.) dark (as referencing the color of a postage stamp).
Cierre Oficial (Postal): (Sp.) sealed by official (postal) authorities as damaged or censored.
Cierro Oficial: (Sp.) inscription, official seals for Chile, El Salvador.
Cieszyn: local post provisional, Poland, 1919.
Ciety or Niezabkowany: (Pol.) imperforate (stamp).
Cieza: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
C.I.F.: (Sp.) Congreso Internacional de Filatelia, International Philatelic Congress, 1960.
Cifra: (Sp.) numeral.
Cifras de Control: (Sp.) control numbers.
Cigarette Paper: thin paper used for rolling cigarettes, used by Latvia for a stamp issue in 1919.
Cigarette Tax: 1: stamps paying a government tax on cigarettes. 2: used as postage due labels in South Africa, 1922.
Cigarette Tube Stamps: tax receipt paid on hollow tubes of cigarette paper to which small mouthpieces were attached, for those who made their own cigarettes, 1919-33.
CIGTTE.: overprint abbreviation for cigarette on US Cigarette Tube revenue stamps.
Cihlove cervená: (Czech.) brick-red (color).
C.I.H.S.: Commission Interalliée Haute-Silésie (Ger.) InterAllied Commission for Upper Silesia, hand stamp / overprint on stamps of Germany, official use, Feb.1920.
Cijuela: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Nationalist forces, 1937.
Cile: (It.) Chile.
Cilicia: southeastern Asia Minor territory of Turkey; Currency: 40 paras = 1 piaster 1918-Oct. 20, 1921: occupied by French and British who overprinted stamps of France and Turkey; 1918, Feb. 10: British military occupation stamps used in parts of Cilicia, 1919: control transferred to France, 1919, Mar. 4: No. 1, 2 paras red-lilac, first stamps used, stamps of Turkey overprinted “Cilicie,” 1919: first postage due stamps issued, French regime overprinted stamps of Turkey and France, 1920: France received territory as mandate from League of Nations, 1920, July 15: first air mail stamp, 1921, Oct. 20: Cilicia returned to Turkey, 1923: Turkey expelled the French; see T.E.O., O.M.F.
Cilicien: (Ger.) Cilicia.
Ciliegia: (It.) cerise (color).
Cina: (Czech., It.) China.
Cinabrio: (Sp.) vermilion (color).
Cinabru: (Rom.) vermilion (color).
Cinci: (Rom.) five (number).
Cincinnati City Delivery: U.S. local post, Cincinnati, Ohio, used stamps,1883.
Cincisprezece: (Rom) fifteen (number).
Cincizeci: (Rom) fifty (number).
Cinderella: a stamp-like label with no postal validity that may have perforations, gum and designs that imitate real postage stamps; see Bogus, Carriage, Charity, Dues, Fantasy, Etiquettes, Label, License, Local, Poster, Revenue, Royalty, Saving, Taxpaid (Revenue), Telegraph and Telephone, Toy Stamps and Seals, Stickers.
Cinderella Division: APS term for exhibition classification to include charity stamps, poster stamps, promotional stamps and other cinderellas.
Cinöbeivörös: (Hung.) vermilion (color).
Cinq-Mars-la-Pile: local provisional, France, 1944.
Cinquantenaire 24 Septembre: (Fr.) 50 years of occupation overprint on stamps of French Colonies postage dues for New Caledonia, 1903.
Cínsky: (Czech.) Chinese.
Cinzento: (Port.) gray (color).
Ciocolata: (Rom.) chocolate (color).
Ciocolata-brun: (Rom.) chocolate-brown (color).
Cioccolato: (It.) chocolate (color).
CIPEX: see Centenary International Philatelic Exhibition.
C.I.R.: Clarence I. Ronsaville, BEP employee initials, 1906-1928; see Plate Finisher Initials, Siderographer.
Cipro: (It.) Cyprus.
Cir.: USPS address abbreviation for Circle.
Circuit Book: book with stamps or covers offered for sale to collectors, usually by stamp groups.
Circuito Delle Oasi / Tripoli / Maggio-1934-XII: overprint on stamps of airmail stamps of Libya for Tripolitania, for “Circuit of the Oases.”
Circulacion: (Sp.) put into circulation, issued.
Circulado, Sobres: (Sp.) postally used covers.
Circular-Beförderung: local post, Cologne, Germany, 1888-89.
Circular Date Stamp (CDS, cds): postal marking with date, place and time of mailing in a circular marking, may be part of a machine cancel or a separate mark, started in the 1820s, machine usage since the 1880s; four types, rimless, single ring, double ring and square circle.
Circular Delivery Stamps: private firms in Great Britain usage for stamps issued in prepayment of delivery of circulars, samples, and printed matter, issued 1865-67.
Circular Design: used in Norway, 1855, complicated circular pattern of parallel lines to prevent washing of stamp for reuse.
Circulations: (Fr.) circuit books.
Circulo Filatelico Argentino: (Sp.) Argentine Philatelic Circle, inscription on issue of Argentina, UPU reported Aug. 18, 1997; not valid for postage.
Cirenaica: overprint on stamps of Italy, for Cyrenaica, Tripolitania, 1923; see Cyrenaica.
Ciruela: (Sp.) plum (color).
C.I.S.: 1: Commission Interalliée Slesvig (Ger.) Interallied Commission for Schleswig, 1920. 2: see Commonwealth of Independent States.
Ciskei: South Africa homeland state with territorial authority; 1981, Dec. 4: No.1, 5 cent multicolor, first stamps issued, 1994, Apr. 27: Ciskei dissolved as a separate administrative state; see South Africa.
Citizens Stamp Advisory Committee (CSAC): a group of citizens, non USPS employees, appointed by the USPS to review the more than 40,000 suggestions for stamp subjects that the USPS receives each year.
Cito, Citissime, Volantissime: (Latin) “quickly, very quickly, very fleetingly” inscription on early Italian and Central European mail, urging speed; from the 15th century on; the number of “Cito’s” indicated the degree of urgency.
Citrongul: (Dan.) lemon-yellow (color).
Citromsarga: (Hung.) lemon-yellow (color).
Citron: (Fr.) lemon (color).
Citrongul: (Dan., Swed.) lemon-yellow (color).
Cittá del Vaticano: (It.) Vatican City.
City & Suburban Telegraph: issued telegraph stamps for firm’s own telegrams, New York,1855?.
City Delivery Co.: local parcel firm; used a label, year unknown.
City Despatch & Express: US local post handstamp, Baltimore, Md., 1850.
City Despatch Post: 1: US local post, New York, N.Y.; 1842-50; see Carriers’ Stamps. 2: US local post handstamp, New York, N.Y., 1848.
City Dispatch: 1: US local post, New York, N.Y., 1846. 2: US local post, Philadelphia, Pa., 1860. 3: US local post, St. Louis, Mo., 1861.
City Dispatch Post: US local post handstamp, Baltimore, Md., 1846-47.
City Dispatch Post Office: US local post, New Orleans, La., 1847.
City Express Post: US local post, Philadelphia, Pa., c. 1840s.
City Letter Express Mail: US local post, Newark, N.J., 1856.
City Mail Co.: US local post, New York, N.Y., 1845.
City of Glasgow Union Railway: Scotland local post.
City of London Delivery: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
City of London Mail: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
City of London P. Auct.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
City One Cent Dispatch: US local post, Baltimore, Md., 1851.
City Parcel Clearing House: private parcel delivery firm served Toronto, Canada, used stamps.
City Penny Post: Great Britain, Ireland and North America 1765 Act permitted the establishment of “.a Penny Post Office.” in any town for local mail as thought convenient.
City Postal Service: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
Ciudadaño: (Sp.) citizen, refers to inscription on mail from the Mexican period of colonial postal history.
Ciudad del Vaticano: (Sp.) see Vatican City.
Ciudadela: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Ciudad Juarez: provisional, revolutionary, district of Mexico issued its own overprints, 1914.
Ciudad Real: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Ciudad Rodrigo: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Nationalist forces, 1937.
Cividini Mark: originally used by a French stamp dealer as a guarantee; upon his death, another dealer bought the mark and used it on faked letters and stamps.
Civil Censorship: includes opening, reading or marking of mail emanating from or sent to civilians primarily during wartime or periods of unrest.
Civil Service Stamps: used on civil service mail in some countries.
CKOS: Central Committee for Capital Rebuilding, Polish charity label.
CL: 1: Scott Catalogue prefix to identify air mail semi-official stamps. 2: Crown Lands, South Australia official overprint, 1868-74. 3: correspondence locale distribution (Fr.) local letters posted at smaller offices, 1833-58. 4: international postal code for Sri Lanka.
C.L. & M. (Colusa, Lake & Medocino Telegraph Company): issued telegraph stamps for firms’ own telegrams, US, 1876.
Clair: (Fr.) light (color).
Clann Na l’Eireann: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
Clapp & Son, Inc. Express: local firm serviced Boston, Mass. and Providence, R.I.; used a label.
Clapper Post: started in Vienna, Austria. Postmen sounded a clapper to notify the public they were available to accept mail; which they marked and delivered to branch post offices, April 1772.
Clarior e Tenebris: “Light out of darkness;” inscription on the stamps of Grenada.
Clark & Co.: 1: US local post, New York, N.Y., 1857. 2: Great Britain local post, 1866.
Clark & Hall: US local post, St. Louis, MO.,1851.
Clark & Phillips’ Express: local post serviced New York City area; used a label, year unknown.
Clark & Rushton’s Express: local post serviced Mass. used a label, year unknown.
Clarke’s Circular Express: US local post, New York, N.Y., printed matter, 1865-68(?).
Clarke, Wm. E.: US medicine stamp inscription; see Private Die Proprietary Stamps.
Clark, Frank E. (F.E.C.): inscription on US match stamp; see Private Die Proprietary Stamps.
Clark, Henry A.: inscription on US match stamp; see Private Die Proprietary Stamps.
Clark, Jas. A.: inscription on US match stamp; see Private Die Proprietary Stamps.
Clark Match Co.: inscription on US match stamp; see Private Die Proprietary Stamps.
Clark, R.C & C.S.: US medicine stamp inscription; see Private Die Proprietary Stamps.
Clark’s Special Delivery System: local parcel service, Seattle, Wash.; used stamps, late 1800s.
Claro: (Sp.) light (color).
Classeur: (Fr.) stockbook.
Classic: the designation classic is applied to a stamp or cover, which because of its beauty of design, its age or rarity, is much sought after, generally only refers to stamps issued prior to 1900.
Classique: (Fr.) see Classic.
Clausland(ia): Christmas fantasy labels created by Maggie Kate.
Clavologique, Principality of: (Fr.) bogus labels of French origin.
Clay Banknote: the US 1870 12¢ National Bank Note stamp.
Clay Tablets: moist clay used to retain symbols and messages for transmission beginning around 3000 B.C. and continuing in some places to as late as the 1st century B.C.
Clayton’s Post: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
C.L.D.: Crown Lands Department frank, Canadian.
Clean Cut Perforation: Perkins, Bacon and Co. perforating machine which cut holes cleanly, without bits of paper adhering.
Cleaned Plate: when a printing plate has been used for some time, it becomes clogged with ink resulting in a poor impression; after cleaning, the stamps printed from it are described as “from a cleaned plate.”
Cleaning: removal of foreign substance from a stamp.
Clear Grill: scam for a grilled stamp; if it’s a “clear” grill, it means that there is no grill.
Clearing House Parcel Delivery Company: parcel firm serviced Boston, Mass., used stamps.
Clear Zones: USPS term for area where barcodes can be placed on the front of mail pieces.
Cleator & Workington Junction Railway: British local post.
Clerk 51, 54, 55 and 56: identification of US railway mail clerks who canceled stamps on their routes, 1909-20.
Cleveland’s Harrow L.P.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
Cliché: end result of the process of applying a design into metal; individual identical units that are used to make up a printing plate, plate, image, block, photo, line cut, position.
Click-n-Ship: USPS service that allows individuals to print shipping labels and pay for postage online via a credit card.
Click Stamp: a postage imprint produced by Pitney Bowes.
Climatic: stamp paper that is liable to change color due to exposure to light, air or dampness.
Climax Dater: rubber date cancel used 1885-1935 in Great Britain at small postal facilities, original usage was in violet ink until 1911 when ink pads were changed to black ink.
Clinton’s Penny Post: US local post, Philadelphia, Pa.(?).
Clipper: Pan-American Airways plane, flew many first flights on trans-oceanic routes.
Clipper Postmark: incorrectly applied to an ocean mail mark used outbound from New York; shows a small grid between the “New” and “York” in the town mark.
Clipperton Island: atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, southwest of Mexico; 18th century: named for John Clipperton, a pirate who headquartered on the island, 1855: annexed by France, 1876, Jan.1: joined the UPU with France, 1895, Apr. 4: inscription for Pacific Island local post, to frank mail between the island and the San Francisco, diagonal overprint on stamps of Mexico considered to be bogus. 1897: seized by Mexico, 1935: France took possession.
Clise: (Sp.) see Cliché.
Cliseele: (Rom.) illustrations.
C.L.N.: Comitati di Liberazione Nazionale (It.) National Liberation Committees, 1943-44: inscription / overprint on stamps of Italy for local use.
C.L.N. Italia Posta Partigiana: (It.) inscription for Parma, Italy, unissued, see C.L.N.
C.L.N. / Ossola Libera / 10.9.44: (It.) overprint for Domodossola, Italy, see C.L.N.
C.L.N. / Posta Italiane / Zona Aosta: (It.) inscription for Aosta, Italy, see C.L.N.
C.L.N. / Sondalo / Pro / Tubercolotici: (It.) overprint, see C.L.N.
Cloger Valley Railroad: Ireland local post.
Closed Mail: mail sent in a “closed” or sealed postal bag from one exchange office to another; rate differences ceased when prepaid international rate went into effect July 1, 1875.
Closed Transit Dispatches: sealed bags of international mail that travel through the USPS from one country to another country; bags are not opened for redistribution.
Closet Collector: a stamp collector unknown to other stamp collectors.
Closing of the Mail: time after which mail will not be accepted by a post office for dispatch on a specific train or ship.
Clothes-line Stamp: nickname for the US 1939 four state stamp, Scott No. 858, which looks as though the states are hanging from a clothes line.
Club Covers: covers produced by stamp clubs usually in connection with an exhibition.
Clube: (Port.) association, club.
Club Special Delivery: parcel firm; used a stamp.
Cluj: city in Transylvania, once part of Hungary, taken by Romania WWII, stamps issued in 1919 during Romanian occupation after WWI defeat of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, aka Kolozsvar.
Cluster Box: a centralized unit of individually locked compartments for the delivery of mail.
Clyde Post: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
CM: 1: Corrier Maggior (It.) pre-adhesive postmark for Venetian Postmaster General. 2: Censura Militar (Sp.) military censor. 3: carte maximum (Fr.), maximum card. 4: Commonwealth of the Marianas, when used in a postmark.
C.M.B.G.: Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group.
C.M.C. Courier Services: local post, Canada, 1987.
C.M.H.: Clinton M. Hisle, BEP employee initials, 1906-1928; see Plate Finisher Initials, Siderographer.
C.M.S. Post: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
C.M. Stamps Exp.Del.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
C.M.T.: surcharge found on the 1916-1918 regular and postage due issues of Austria for use during the 1919 Romanian occupation of Kolomyya (Ger. Kolomea, Pol. Kolomyja), Ukraine: “Comandamentul Militar Territorial” (“Territorial Military Headquarters”). Kolomyya is located in SW Ukraine on the Prut River ca. 30 miles SSE of Ivano-Frankivs’k, at the E end of the gateway through the E Carpathanian Mountains via the Jablonica Pass.
C.N.: can refer to either Cherokee Nation, Chickasaw Nation, Choctaw Nation; when used in a postmark, see Cherokee Nation.
C.N.C.: Chinese National Currency, 1948.
C.N.E.P.: Chambre syndicale francaise des Negociants En Philatelie (Fr.) French stamp dealers association.
CNI / Pirano: Compagnia Navale Istria/Pirano (It.) ship letter stamp, 1823.
CO: 1: Scott Catalogue prefix to identify air mail official stamps. 2: Commissariat Officer, South Australia official overprint,1868-74. 3: USPS abbreviation for Colorado. 4: Chief Office, Britain, 1794-96. 5: Compagnia Ottomana (It.) Constantinople, 1851.
Coach, Mail: the word “coach” was taken from Kocs, Hungary, where the first light coach was developed in the 15th century, first as a means of public transport, then used to carry mail.
Coamo: provisional issue inscription for Coamo, Puerto Rico, US administration, Aug.1898.
Coarse Perforation: perforation consisting of large holes and teeth far apart, irregularly spaced.
Coated Paper: paper with a slick enameled, or chalk surface.
Coating: a protective surface applied to a printing plate, also known as facing.
Cobalto: (It., Sp.) cobalt blue (color).
Cobrar: (Sp.) to collect (cash or a fee).
Cocentaina: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
Coche Correo: (Sp.) mail coach.
Cochin: India Feudatory State; Currency: 6 puttans = 5 annas, 2 pies = 1 anna, 16 annas = 1 rupee 1892, Apr. 1: No.1, 1/2 puttan yellow, first local stamps with umbrella watermark, 1896: watermark coat of arms, 1913: first official stamp issued, 1949, July 1: formed a United State of Travancore-Cochin, used surcharged stamps of Travancore, 1951, Apr. 1: stamps of Republic of India,
Cochin China: Cambodian Peninsula, state of French Indo-China; Currency: 100 centimes = 1 franc 1862, first stamps of France used in French colony, 1863-67: occupied by France, 1886-87: No. 1, 5c on 25c yellow, surcharge on French Colonies, obliteration, lozenges of dots, 1888: issue prepared but never issued, 1889: stamps of French Indo-China used.
Cochinchine: (Fr.) Cochin China.
Cochinkina: (Dan.) Cochin China.
Cochin, Travancore: see Travancore, Cochin.
Co. Ci: (It.) Commissariato Civile, Civil Commissioner, overprint on stamps of Yugoslavia for Ljubljana, Italian occupation, 1941.
Cockermouth, Keswick & Penrith Railway: British local post.
C.O. Constantinople: (It.) Ottoman Company, Constantinople; Turkish Steamship Co.,1840-62.
Cocos (Keeling) Islands: islands in the Indian Ocean, southwest of Indonesia; Currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling, 100 cents = 1 dollar (1969) 1609: discovered by Captain William Keeling, 19th century: first inhabitants, 1857: British possession under Ceylon administration, 1886: transferred to Straits Settlements, 1903: used stamps of Straits Settlements, incorporated with Singapore, 1933-37: first stamps of Straits Settlements, 1942, July-Apr. 3, 1946: placed under a military administration of Ceylon due to Japanese occupation of Singapore, 1952-55: used stamps of Singapore, 1955: transferred to Australia when Singapore became independent, 1963, June 11: No.1, 3 pence dark red-brown, own stamps issued, 1966, Feb. 14-July 8, 1969: used stamps of Australia due to decimal currency change, 1969, July 9: separate stamps issued, valid within Australia, 1979, Sep. 3: postal service was independent of Australia. 1991, Jan. 25: official stamp issued.
Cocula: overprint used on stamps of Mexico for this district during 1856-1883.
C.O.D.: see Collect on Delivery.
COD: Codfish Air Lines, nickname for Korean war planes that carried mail and supplied between shore stations and an aircraft carrier.
Co-Extensive line: British Jubilee line broken into short lengths, see Jubilee Line.
C of A: Commonwealth of Australia, watermark with crown, 1931.
Coffee House Post Office: letters arriving by ships were delivered to a coffee house near the wharf, where they were picked up by the addressee.
Cogswell & Co’s Express: local post firm serviced Boston and Lawrence, Mass., used labels.
Cogwheel: see Cancellation, Cogwheel.
Coiling Machines: equipment capable of processing printed webs by slitting into individual rows, perforating, rolling and packaging coils of stamps into 50 coil “flats” with individual detachable transparent “bubble packs”.
Coil Leader: long paper tag at the delivery end of a stamp coil, sometimes printed with number, denomination and coil price.
Coil Line Pair: pair of coil stamps showing a colored line caused by a gap where the curved printing plate is joined; there are flat plate coil line pairs, where the line was meant to be a pane dividing mark when sheet stamps were printed from the plate.
Coil Plate Numbers: numbers that are printed at regular intervals at the bottom of coil stamps.
Coils: stamps which are produced in roll form for use in vending, dispensing, stamp affixing machines; a coil usually contains 100, 500 or more stamps of a single denomination and design.
Coil Stamp: a single stamp from a coil of stamps; issued in a continuous roll, with parallel straight edges on two sides and perforations only between two stamps; some coil stamps were also issued in a long strip with perforations on all four sides.
Coil Trailers: a piece of brown or manila paper adhering to the edge of the last stamp on a roll and wrapped around the coil.
Coil Waste: short lengths of paper at end of coil runs, perforated in non-standard gauges and sold from 1919-1924 when the sale was stopped.
Coil Wrapper: label, seal or wrapper used to package or finish completed rolls of coil stamps.
Coin: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Nationalist forces, 1937.
Coin Prepayment: US 3¢ coin issued in 1852 was glued to cover when the 3¢ single prepaid letter rate went into effect in 1851.
Coins Datés: (Fr.) known as “dated corners” since 1922. Many French area stamps have the date of issue in the lower right margin of the stamp; these are collected as blocks of four stamps.
Col.: (Fr.) abbreviation for colonies.
Colaparchee, Ga Paid 5: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Colburn’s Express: local post serviced Boston, Roxbury and South End, Mass., used a label.
Colchester Emergency Post: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
Colchester Post: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
Colding, Johann Peter: proposed a balloon route carrying letters over the heads of British ships blockading Denmark during the Napoleonic wars; four successful flights took place between June 2 and Dec, 1808, when the service was discontinued.
Colección: (Sp.) collection, a gathering together of philatelic material.
Colección de Sellos: (Sp.) term for an auction lot comprising of a mounted or unmounted country, topical, etc. collection, which normally is viewed prior to bidding.
Colección de Tarjeta Ilustrada: (Sp.) collection of picture postcards.
Colector: (Sp.) collector.
Colegio de Abogados: (Sp.) inscription on Spanish fiscal stamps used by lawyers.
Colegio de Huerfanos: (Sp.) inscription on Spanish semipostals issued by Postal, Telegraph and Customs services to collect funds for colleges used by children of employees.
Colegio de Notarios: (Sp.) inscription on fiscal stamps used by notaries.
Cole’s City Despatch P.O.: local post handstamp, New York, N.Y., 1848-50.
Cole’s Electric Express Co.: local parcel service operated via trolley cars in Bridgeport, Conn., used a stamp; 1901?
Colete: (Port.) to collect; to assemble or bring together.
Coleter: (Port.) collector.
Colima: 1: district overprint used on stamps of Mexico, 1856-1883. 2: local post provisional, Mexico, 1914.
Colis: (Fr.) package.
Colis Postal: (Fr.) parcel post.
Colis Postaux: (Fr.) international parcel post, overprint on stamps of Dahomey, 1967-69.
Collage Cachet: design made by gluing various items to form a cohesive cachet.
Collateral Material: 1: relevant illustrations exhibited in a stamp display to provide additional background information on the same subject as displayed. 2: non-philatelic material that is related to philatelic material, such as photographs, maps, etc.
Collecione di Cartoline: (It.) postcard collecting.
Collect: half of a telegraph stamp that was affixed to the telegram, delivered to the customer, the other half kept in sending office.
Collection: a gathering together of philatelic material.
Collection and Distribution Wagon Service: 1896, Oct.1: designed to handle mail started in New York City, 1897: pneumatic service started, they were transferred to Buffalo, N.Y. then to St. Louis, 1900s: service was discontinued, 1899-1905: another wagon service operated in Maryland.
Collection Box: blue-painted USPS street box for the public to deposit mail.
Collection Lot: term for an auction lot comprising of a mounted or unmounted country, topical, etc. collection, which normally is viewed prior to bidding.
Collectionneur: (Fr.) collector.
Collectionneur de Timbres-Poste: (Fr.) stamp collector.
Collection Timbres-Postes: (Fr.) term for an auction lot comprising of a mounted or unmounted country, topical, etc. collection, which normally is viewed prior to bidding.
Collect’n & Dist’n: handstamp for street car service.
Collect on Delivery (C.O.D.): mail where the cost of postage and the product enclosed will be collected from the recipient and forwarded to the mailer; sometimes called Cash on Delivery.
College Stamps: private stamps issued by some US business colleges for training purposes; classified as labels; used in late1800s and early 1900s.
College Stamps, University: the British universities of Oxford and
Cambridge were officially granted the right to issue their own stamps for internal messenger service in the mid-1600s; several other colleges used their own stamps between 1871 and 1886.
Collezione: (It.) collection, a gathering together of philatelic material.
Collezione di Cartoline: (It.) collection of picture postcards.
Collezione Francobolli: (It.) term for an auction lot comprising of a mounted or unmounted country, topical, etc. collection, which normally is viewed prior to bidding.
Collins Bros.: inscription on US match stamp; see Private Die Proprietary Stamps.
Colln a.E. Spaar Oberspaar: local post Germany, 1888-89.
Collodion Stains: stains in stamp paper caused by the chemical substance collodion which is used to rejoin perforations in multiples.
Collotype: uses gelatine images of photographs in the printing process; as the Poltava Zemstvo issue of 1912 and London International Stamp Exhibition souvenir sheet of 1950.
Colne Valley Railway: British local post.
Colo.: abbreviation for Colorado prior to Zip Code usage.
Colombia: Northern South America, between Panama and Venezuela; Official name of Postal Administration: Correos de Colombia Currency: 100 centavos = 1 peso 1700s, early: established by Spain as the Viceroyalty of New Granada, 1810, July 20: Spanish Viceroyalty of New Granada formed the State of Greater Colombia, 1819: Republic of Colombia proclaimed, 1824: Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador made up the State of Greater Colombia, 1830: the three nations separated, 1832-58: split into Venezuela, Ecuador and the Republic of New Granada, 1858-61: named the Grenadine Confederation, 1859: No.1, 2 1/2 centavos green, first stamps as a member of the Granadine Confederation, 1861: stamps issued as the United States of New Grenada, 1862: stamps issued as the United States of Colombia, 1863-1902: Colombian states (departments) that issued their own stamps were Antioquia (1868), Bolivar (1863), Boyaca (1899), Cauca (1902), Cundinamarca (1870), Santander (1884) and Tolima (1870), 1865: first registration stamp issued, 1865-81: stamps of Britain used in Cartagena, Panama, Santa Martha, stamps of France used in Colon-Aspinwall, 1870-81: stamps of Britain used in Colon-Aspinwall, 1872-74: stamps of France used in Panama and Santa Martha, 1872-81: stamps of Britain and France used in Savanilla, 1878: stamps issued for Panama, Colombia Dominion, 1881, July 1: joined the UPU as the United States of Panama, 1886: first postage due, late fee stamps, 1887: Colombia issued stamps for use in Panama, 1893: first acknowledgment of receipt stamp issued, 1899-1902: provisional issues during civil war, Barranquilla, Cartagena, Cucuta, Medellin and Tumaco, 1903: Panama broke away from Colombia, 1909: first department stamp issued, 1917: first special delivery stamp issued, 1919: first air mail stamp issued, 1923: air mail registration stamp issued, 1937: first official stamp issued, 1958, May 19: air mail special delivery stamp issued, 1966, Apr. 26: first semipostal stamp issued; see Antioquia, Bolivar, Boyaca, Cundinamarca, Santander, Tolima.
Colombiana: air mail issue for Compania Colombiana de Navegacion Aerea.
Colombian Express Companies: local post, via cars and aircraft, 1920-30s.
Colombia, United States: see Colombia.
Colombie: (Fr.) Colombia.
Colombie Britannique: (Fr.) British Columbia.
Colon: 1: Columbus, inscription on first stamps of Chile. 2: currency unit in Chile, Costa Rica, El Salvador. 3: 1903: stamps of Colombia, Republica de Panama overprint for Colon; registration stamp issued in 1898.
Colon, Cristobal: (Sp.) Christopher Columbus.
Colonia: (It.) colony.
Colonia de Rio de Oro: inscription for Rio de Oro.
Colonia Eriteria: inscription / overprint for Eritrea colony of Italy.
Colonial: term used for stamps in the possession of the larger powers, issued for their colonies or territory, usually with different inscriptions for various locations; the Mauritius “Post Office” of 1847 is the earliest British colonial.
Coloniali Italiane: (It.) inscription on stamps of Italy for Italian Colonies, July 1, 1932; see Italian Colonies.
Colonial Printing: stamps printed in a British colony from impressions originally made in London from the original plates.
Colonial Post: grant made to Mary and William Neale, Feb. 17, 1692 for a 20-year period, for the American Colonies; Neale, Master of the Mint, never saw America.
Colonias: inscription for Portuguese Africa, 1919.
Colonies de l’ Empire Francais: inscription for French Colonies that didn’t have stamps of their own, 1859-1906, 1943-45.
Colonies Postes: inscription on the General Issue for French Colonies, 1881.
Color: may be a variable shade that may cause one stamp to look different from another stamp with technically the same color; different shades may have vastly different catalog values.
Colorado: became a US territory Feb. 28, 1861, state Aug. 1, 1876; cut from Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico and Utah Territories.
Colorant: (Fr.) die.
Color Changeling: see Changeling.
Color de Alhucema: (Sp.) lavender.
Colore: (It.) color.
Coloreado: (Sp.) tinted, colored.
Colored Cancellation: postmark applied to any stamp in any color but black.
Colored Line Roulette: perforations indicated by colored dashes printed over the top of the slits, used on stamps of Thurn and Taxis.
Colored Paper: color caused by dye added to the paper pulp; used by nations for stamps.
Color Error: a stamp printed in a color intended for a different stamp, printed in the wrong color, or color omitted.
Color Fast: stamp production inks that are not affected by contact with water, benzine, etc.
Color, Fugitive: stamp production inks that are affected by contact with water, benzine, etc.
Color Guide: printed set of colors used by collectors to match colors used to print stamps.
Color Misregistration: misalignment of multi-color printing plates, resulting in a color appearing out of position; see Color Missing, Color Shift.
Color Missing: error caused by an intended color not appearing on the finished stamp.
Color Omitted: see Color Missing.
Color, Process: printed reproduction of the three primary colors plus black.
Color Proof: stamp impression in approved color(s) before start of production to show how a given design would appear before start of production.
Color Range: variety, in shade or tint of color found on various examples of the same stamp.
Color Registration: marks of different sizes and shapes used as an aid in properly registering the different colors in the printing process.
Color Separation: the process of preparing a separate drawing, engraving, or negative for each color required in the printing of a stamp.
Color Shade: commonly used to denote a variation of the same color.
Color Shift: variety where one or more colors of a multicolored issue are misaligned.
Color Smear: any unintended color that appears on a stamp due to a printing error, aka a freak.
Colors, Universal Postal Union: the Washington, DC, 1897 Congress recommended that all member countries standardize colors for the three most-used values in international service; green for single printed matter rate; red for postal card rate, dark blue for single letter rate; there were no recommendations regarding domestic postal rate colors.
Color Trials: proof impressions in various colors to aid in color selection for the issued stamp.
Color Variations: frequently found on the Giori press on which up to three colors are printed.
Colosnah: city in Egypt, Interpostal Seals used 1879-82, see Interpostal Seals.
Columbian Exposition Registration Stamp: label for 1893 exposition possibly used for registering for drawing or another event.
Columbians: nickname applied to set of 16 stamps issued in 1893 to commemorate the 400th anniversary of Columbus’s discovery of the New World; designs used again in 1998.
Columbia Postal Supply Co.: manufacturer of canceling machines in use from the 1900s-50s.
Columbia, S.C. Paid 5, Post Office 5: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Columbia, Ten. Paid 5: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Columbus Archipelago: Galapagos Island, stamps could be used throughout Ecuador.
Columbus, Ga. Paid 5: see Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Column: a single-stamp width multiple of stamps from a sheet, pane or booklet in a vertical format; horizontal strips are called “row.”
Columnas: (Sp.) pillar boxes, or mail boxes.
Column Total: marginal inscription printed by the post office on stamps of Germany with the face value of the column of stamps.
Comandancia: (Sp.) military or naval command, Spanish language country markings.
Comares: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Nationalist forces, 1938.
Combatientes: (Sp.) combatants, fighting forces used as “Pro Combatientes” in Spanish postal markings.
Comayagua: May 1877, Medio Real surcharge for Honduras province.
Combi Mail: combination of an airplane and a submarine; mail brought to New York from Chicago, via Erie, Hammondsport and forwarded to Germany on a U-boat.
Combinacion: (Sp.) se-tenant.
Combination Block: a block of four or more stamps with different perforations on some of the stamps.
Combination Cover: 1: an envelope or card with stamps from two or more different countries. 2: cover transported by air and one (or more) other (non-air) primary means in transit to the original destination; such as flight plus surface; postal markings are necessary.
Combination Flight Cover: cover flown by two different means in transit to the original destination.
Combination Perforations: perforations made by more than one perforating head on the same sheet of stamps.
Combination Printing: combination of printing processes such as offset (surface printing) and intaglio (recess printing) to print a stamp; used, for example, on 76¢ 2001 Hattie Caraway issue.
Combination Separation: rouletting and perforation combination applied to the same stamp sheet; for example; South Australia 1868-70 2d stamp.
Combination Sheet: Michel Catalogue considers items with more than ten different stamp as combination sheets, see Block.
Combination Sheetlet: Michel Catalogue considers items with seven to ten different stamps as a combination sheetlet; see Block.
Combination Usage: use of stamps of more than one postal service.
Combo FDC: has one or more previously issued stamps added to the cover, with new issue.
Comb Perforations: perforations made in stamp sheets in which the holes have been punched three sides at one time, then the machine moves up the sheet to perforate the next row.
Comedores Beneficos, Municipales: (Sp.) dining room local tax stamps.
Comemorativo da Exposicao de S. Francisco Xavier: inscription with “India 1931″ on stamps of Portuguese India to commemorate an exhibition held at Goa.
COMEX: Comisión de Expertos Filatélicos (de Barcelona) (Sp.) stamp expert committee.
Com-Hamadeh: city in Egypt, Interpostal Seals used 1880, see Interpostal Seals.
Comissão Portuguesa de Prisioneiros de Guerra: (Port.) overprint on stamps of Portugal as Franchise stamps used by the for prisoners of war commission.
Comité Français de la Liberation National: (Fr.) French Committee for National Liberation, inscription on French Colonies, used with stamps of their own country.
Comm: abbreviation for commemorative
Commando Brief: Orange Free State military label, Boer, second South African War, 1899.
Commatology: study of postmarks, also known as Marcophily (International usage), Marcophilately.
Commemoratif: (Fr.) commemorative.
Commemorative: see Commemorative Stamp.
Commemorative Documentary Stamps: last two US documentary revenue stamps issued 1962-63, to mark the centennial of the Internal Revenue Service.
Commemorative Flight: 1: flight tracing all or part of historically important flight. 2: flight or commemoration of an important aviation event.
Commemorative Labels: adhesive labels used to commemorate events, etc., some are used as cachets.
Commemorative Pane: a pane of stamps where the paper around the stamps (the selvage) has illustrations and text; usually with header across the top or other information about the stamps.
Commemorative Panel: USPS panel with each panel devoted to a single subject, includes example of the stamp(s), reproduction of engravings and background information on the issue; started Sept. 20, 1972.
Commemorative Postmark: postmark to honor some person, anniversary or historical event, first used by France in 1855.
Commemorative Stamp: stamp issued to honor a person, anniversary or historical event, first government adhesive issued was Peru, 1871, in honor of the 20th anniversary of the first railway in South America; first used by US as a stamped envelope of 1876 to celebrate the Centenary of Independence.
Commemorative Stamp, Earliest US: the 1893 Christopher Columbus series.
Commemorativo: (It., Sp.) commemorative.
Commerce: name given to the French colonial issues of May 1881.
Commercial Airways: local post, semiofficial air mail, Canada, 1929-30.
Commercial Controls Corp.: US postage meter firm, 1944-59, acquired by Friden, Inc.
Commercial Cover: a used business envelope, loosely means any cover not of philatelic origin; term used by collectors to indicate a nonphilatelic cover.
Commercial Express Co.: local post operated during civil war, New Orleans, La., label, 1865.
Commercial Express Line: freight service operated by the Erie Railroad, used a label; 1903.
Commercial Union Telegraph Company: issued stamps for firms own telegrams, US, 1876.
Commercial Overprints: used on stamps of Great Britain; serve the same purpose as perfins, applied by private firms for security reasons; may be four initials related to the firm, placed in the four corners of British postage stamps.
Commisair-Priseur: (Fr.) auctioneer.
Commission Consultative des Timbres: (Fr.) stamp advisory committee.
Commission d’Administration et de Plebéscite Olszytn Alenstein-Traite de Versailles: overprint on stamps of Germany for Allenstein plebiscite,1920.
Commission de Controle Provisôire Korca: inscription on stamps of Albania, 1914.
Commission de Gouvernment Haute Silsie: inscription for Upper Silesia plebiscite issue.
Commission de Gouvernement Provisoire: Albania.
Commission for Technical Cooperation: common design on stamps of the French Community of Nations, 1960.
Commissioner Provinciale Censura: (It.) Provincial Censor Commission, censor marking.
Commission für Retourbriefe (Rückbriefe): (Ger.) inscription for return letters stamps, Bavaria, Nuremberg and Wurttemberg.
Commission Interalliée Marienwerder: overprint on stamps of Germany for Marienwerder plebiscite,1920.
Committente: (It.) “consignor” inscription on Italian tax revenue stamps.
Commodore Shipping: stamps so inscribed were issued in 1961 by Commodore Shipping Co Ltd. to prepay parcel and passenger carried on firm’s ships between Guernsey, Sark and Alderney in the Channel Islands.
Commonwealth: 1937 overprint on definitive stamps of the Philippines for new status as a commonwealth of the U.S.
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS): a loose federation of independent countries from the former Soviet Union, formed Dec. 8, 1991: includes Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.
Commonwealths: Dominions of Great Britain renamed Commonwealths of the British Commonwealth of Nations, 1947; includes Antigua and Bermuda, Australia, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Botswana, Brunei, Cameroon, Canada, Cyprus, Dominica, Fiji, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guyana, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritius, Namibia, Nauru, New Zealand, Nigeria, Pakistan (up to 1999), Papua New Guinea, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Kingdom, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
Commonwealth Stamp Catalogues: British semi-specialized catalogs featuring King George VI and Queen Elizabeth issues.
Commun: (Fr.) common.
Communicaciones: (Sp.) communications, inscription used on stamps of Spain, Spanish Colonies, 1870-99.
Communist China: see China.
Community Service L.Sc.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
Comores: (Fr.) Comoros.
Comoros: Southern Africa island between Northern Madagascar and Northern Mozambique; Official name of Postal Administration: Société Nationale des Postes et Télécommunications (SNDT) Currency:100 centimes = 1 franc 1864: first stamps were French Colonies General issues, 1887-1914: stamps of French Colonies issued for islands of Anjouan, Grand Comoro, Mayotte and Moheli, as part of Madagascar; 1892, Nov.: first stamps issued, 1892, Nov.: stamps for Anjouan issued, then stamps of Madagascar in 1914, 1896: stamps for Mohéli issued, then stamps of Madagascar in 1914, 1897, Nov.: stamps for Grande Comore, Great Comoro issued, then stamps of Madagascar in 1914, 1914-46: attached to Madagascar, then became a separate French Overseas Territory, 1914-50: stamps of Madagascar, 1950: No.1, 10 centimes blue, issued their own stamps, 1950: first postage due, air mail stamps issued, 1960: inscription “Archipel des Comores” used, 1962, Apr. 7: first semipostal stamp issued, 1975, July 6: inscription “Etat Comorien” State of Comoro, used, except for Mayotte, which chose to remain French, 1976, July 29: joined the UPU, 1977, Nov. 21: inscribed “Republique des Comores” 1979: first official, air mail semipostal stamps issued; now known as Union of Comores.
Compagnia Ottomania: (It.) Ottoman Company, Turkish Steamship Company, 1840-62.
Companhia de Moçambique: inscription used on stamps by the Mozambique Company, used for one of the territories in Portuguese East Africa.
Companhia do Nyassa: inscription used on stamps by the Nyassa Company, used for one of the territories in Portuguese East Africa, 1894.
Compania Colombiana de Navegacion Aerea: airline name used as an overprint on private Colombia air mails, internal usage, March 1920; government stamps must be affixed.
Compania de Transportes Terrestres Soc. Anon: local post, Colombia Express Companies, 1923-32.
Compania Urbana de Transportes: local post, Colombia Express Companies.
Company Cachet: cachet applied by a commercial firm in connection with the stamp or postmark on the cover.
Compartment Lines: printing variety caused when presses picks up ink during the printing process, appears as lines, dots or dashes in one or more margins of stamps.
Competa: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Nationalist forces, 1937.
Complaisance (Courrier de): (Fr.) favor mail.
Completare l’Insieme: (Port.) complete set.
Complete Matched Set: a set of plate blocks for every number and pane position possible for a certain stamp.
Complete Set (CPL): group of stamps that includes all the values from a series, or all the stamps from a issue.
Composite Proof: a single printer’s working proof showing two or more different designs.
Composite Sheet: sheet of stamps made up of different values, types or designs.
Composite Stamps: different values, types or designs on two or more joined stamps.
Compound Card, Envelope: postal stationery that has been impressed with more than one indicium, such as the second US Nesbitt envelope “star die” series; both series made by George F. Nesbitt from 1853 to 1870.
Compound (Collective) Deluxe Sheets: multi-stamp deluxe presentation sheets from French-area countries.
Compound Perforations: two different perforation measurements on different sides; for example, a stamp of the US 1938 Presidential Series is perforated 10 2 on top and bottom and 11 on both sides. Such stamps are said to be perf. 10 2 x 11.
Compound Plates: a set of two plates each of which contain a part of the entire design.
Compre ud. Café de Costa Rica: (Sp.) overprint in 1923 on stamps of Costa Rica as plea to buy Cost Rican coffee.
Comptant: (Fr.) in cash.
Compulsory Postage Due Labels: labels affixed to mail when charity stamps were not used; Portugal, Romania and Yugoslavia.
Computer-Generated Postage: the use of Internet connections and laser printers to print postage on envelopes.
Computer Stamps: term originally used as synonym for automatic stamps from automatic vending machines, or Frama labels.
Computer Vended Postage: stamp denomination printed by a computer as the stamp is issued.
COMSS: California, Oregon and Mexico Steam Ship Co.,1867 handstamp on mail from Hawaii.
Comstock, W. H.: US medicine stamp inscription; see Private Die Proprietary Stamps.
Comté: (Fr.) country.
Común: (Sp.) common.
Comune: (It.) common.
Comune di Campione: (It.) local post issue of Italy for town on Lake Lugano, used 1944-52.
Comunicaciones: (Sp.) inscription on early revenue issues of Spain, which allows them to be used for reference purposes, postal use is implied and understood.
Conant’s Express: local post serviced Boston, Mass. to Newbury, Maine, used a label; 1852
Con Avanzo di Linguella: (It.) hinge remnant.
Co. Nazionaldi Liberazione: local Italian liberation issue, c1944.
Concentration Camp Mail: mail from the concentration camps established by the Nazi regime in Germany and other countries during World War II.
Concentration Camp Stamps: issued by German government for inmates to send to relatives for mailing parcels to the camp; or by inmates to use as a local post.
Concessional Stamps: sold by Italian post office to private firms to deliver mail for a small fee per item, July 1928.
Con Charnela: (Sp.) hinged.
Conch Republic: propaganda labels for secession of the Florida Keys in 1982 to protest roadblocks by the US Border patrol to catch illegal immigrants.
Con-Con: CONcentration and CONvoy of registered mail, controlled conditions, USPS term.
Concord: common design on stamps of the French Community of Nations, 1969.
Concordance: term used by maximum card collectors to indicate the three elements, view card, stamp and cancel, necessary to qualify as a maximum card.
Concord Bicycle Co.: vignette used for franking parcels, USA.
Concord Coach: built for transportation of mail and passengers at Concord, N.H., 1851.
Concorde Emergency M.S.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
Concours: (Fr.) competition, stamp show.
Concours des Devises Cooperative: (Fr.) label for customer cooperative retail stores in Europe during 1920s-30s.
Condicion: (Sp.) see Condition.
Condition: the quality of a stamp regarding color, centering, cancellation, and gum (if mint) go into making up the term “condition.” Typical condition descriptions are Superb, Very Fine, Fine, Good, Average, or Poor. “Superb” means that stamp is perfect.
Condition of Sale: printed in an auction catalog, (or as “Terms of Sale”) with the legal terms of contract binding the buyer purchasing at the auction; terms may be subject to amendment at the time of the auction.
Condizione: (It.) see Condition.
Condominium: 1: territory ruled by more than one power; stamps may be bilingual. 2: New Caledonia overprint to note joint government by France and England.
Condominium des Nouvelles Hebrides: (Fr.) New Hebrides.
Condor: Brazil, private air mail carrier.
Condorzusatz: (Ger.) additional postage for forwarding via Condor airlines.
Confederate Dead Letter Office: established by the Southern States, June 1, 1861.
Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals: stamps and envelopes issued by individual postmasters between June 1, 1861 and Oct. 16, 1861 when Confederate Government stamps became available.
Confederate States of America: United States Confederate States, 1861, June 1: use of US stamps stopped for the following states: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, 1861, June 1-Oct. 16: Confederate provisional stamps and postmarks used, 1861, Oct. 16:1861: No. 1 5¢ green, first Confederate government stamps appeared, 3¢ Postmaster’s Provisionals; issued stamps used by the seceding states prior to the control of the postal service by the Confederate States of America; see Hillsboro, N.C., Jackson, Miss., Madison Court House, Fl., Nashville, Tenn., Selma, Ala., and Tuscumbia, Ala.
Confederation Helvetica: Switzerland.
Confédérés (Etats): (Fr.) Confederate States (USA).
Confed. Granadina: inscription on Colombia, Granadine Confederation, 1859.
Confe’on Argentina: inscription first issue of Argentina, 1858-60.
Confirm: USPS mail tracking and reporting system for letter mail utilizing a new barcode called the Planet; see Planet.
Confoederatio Helvetica: inscription National Fete Day, semipostal, Switzerland, 1838-post.
Cong Hua Mien Nam: Vietnam.
Congo: International Association of the Upper Congo, local post,1884.
Congo Belge: overprint on stamps of the Belgian Congo, 1908-10, see Zaire.
Congo, Democratic Republic: Central Africa, Northeast of Angola, aka Congo; Official name of Postal Administration: Congolais des Postes et Télécommunications (OCPT) Currency: 100 centimes = 1 franc, 100 sengi = 1 li-kuta, 100 makuta = 1 zaira (1967) 1960, June 30: became independent republic, No. 1, 10 centimes deep plum and ocher; first issue, Congo overprint on stamps of Belgium, 1961, July 5: joined the UPU, 1963, Mar. 21: first semipostal stamp issued, 1963, June 29: Katanga reunited with the Congo, 19, Dec. 8: some stamps used Congo Democratic Republic, 1967: first air mail stamp issued, 1971, Oct. 28: name changed to Republic of Zaire, 1997: name changed to Congo Democratic Republic, see Belgian Congo, Zaire.
Congo. Français: overprint on stamps of French Colonies, 1891, see French Congo.
Congo Français Gabon: (Fr.) Gabon.
Congo, Indian Forces: 1962, Jan.15: “U. N. Force (India) Congo”overprint on stamps of India for use in Congo.
Congo (Kinshasa): 1964: “Republique Populaire” overprint on stamps of the Congo by rebels in Stanleyville.
Congo, People’s Republic: see Congo, Republic of.
Congo, Portuguese: see Congo.
Congo, People’s Republic: Western Africa, between Angola and Gabon; Official name of Postal Administration: Société des Postes et de l’Epargne du Congo Currency: 100 centimes = 1 franc 1886, Jan. 1: joined the UPU, 1910-pre: part of French Congo, 1910: declared a separate colony, joined with Gabon, Ubangi-Shari and Chad Territories, 1934: incorporated as French Equatorial Africa, 1958-pre: joined with other colonies to form French Equatorial Africa, 1958, Nov. 28: became member state of the French Community, 1959: No.1, 25 francs, brown-claret, first stamp issued, 1960, Aug. 15: independence within French Community as the Congo Republic, 1960: first air mail stamp issued, 1961, Dec. 4: first postage due stamp issued, 1962, Apr. 7: first semipostal stamp issued, 1968: first official stamp issued, 1970, Jan. 3: became the People’s Republic of the Congo, 1970, July 20: No. 1, 15 francs green, ocher and red-brown, 1970, Nov. 28: stamps issued as People’s Republic of the Congo, 1990: name changed back to Republic of the Congo.
Congratulations Fall of Bataan and Corregidor: overprint on stamps of Philippines, Japanese occupation, 1942.
Congreso de la Union Postal Panamericana: (Sp.) Pan-American Postal Union Congress, 1931.
Congreso de los Diputados: (Sp.) Spain’s official free frank stamps for its parliament, 1895-98.
Congreso Internacional de Ferrocarriles: (Sp.) International Congress of Railways.
Congress Book: annual publication of the American Philatelic Congress, each issue contains five to ten original research articles.
Conio: (It.) die, a block of metal that has been hand or machine engraved from which plates are prepared to print stamps.
Conjoined: stamp design depicting two or more busts or heads facing in the same direction.
Conjunto: (Sp.) selection, or lot (of stamps).
Conn.: abbreviation for Connecticut prior to Zip Code usage.
Connecting (or Connection) Flight: cover on a flight dedicated to making connection for mail / passengers with another flight, prior to departure or at a specific mid-route point.
Connecticut: became a state Jan. 9, 1788.
Connell Stamp: 1860, postmaster Charles Connell, Woodstock, New Brunswick, Canada ordered stamps with his likeness in place of Queen Victoria; stamp not sold, Connell resigned.
Connolly Association: United Kingdom postal strike; local post, 1971.
Connu: (Fr.) known (quantity).
Con Numeración en el Reverso: (Sp.) with control numbering on the back.
Conseil de l’Europe: (Fr.) Council of Europe, France official issue inscription / overprint for mail from headquarters, Strasbourg, first issue Jan. 14, 1958.
Conseil Municipal de Vinebre: inscription for a postal tax from Vinebre, Catalonia, Spain issued during Spanish Civil War 1938-39.
Consider Grand Rapids: poster stamp issued to promote the Michigan city.
Consigner’s Contract: the legal and binding signed document of agreement between the auctioneer and the owner of the philatelic properties being consigned to the auctioneer.
Consignment: material given to a stamp dealer by a collector (consignor), who also states price required; the dealer then proceeds to sell it for the collector, or consignor, pays the consignor, less a commission to the dealer for handling the material.
Consiliul Europei: (Rom.) label attached to a Romanian stamp commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Council of Europe.
Consnantinople: variety; 1909-14: stamps of the Russian Levant overprinted “Constantinople”
Consolidated Delivery: local parcel serviced Los Angeles, Calif. Used labels.
Consommation: a grey, granite paper used for French war-time stamps, 1917-20.
Constant: term used to describe a variety that appears in the same position on every sheet.
Constanti: local, Spanish civil war, Republican, 1937.
Constantina: local, Spanish civil war, Nationalist, 1937.
Constantinopie: variety; 1909-14: stamps of the Russian Levant overprinted “Constantinople.”
Constantinople (Stamboul): now known as Istanbul; 1748: Austria and Russia established a post office, 1837, May 1-Aug. 1914; 1919-July 1923: French post office in Ottoman Empire opened, used stamps of France, 1830-Sep. 30, 1914: Russian post office opened, 1857-85: British post offices used British stamps with “C” and “S,” 1863-67: used stamps of Lombardy-Venetia (Austrian Italy), 1870, Mar.: Germany opened a post office, 1917, 1873: Italian post office established, 1873-81: stamps of Turkey overprinted for local post use within city, 1885-1914: British post offices used stamps of British Levant, 1896-1919: stamps of Romania overprinted “Constantinopol,” 1909-14: No.1, 10 paras green, stamps of Italy overprinted “Costantinopoli,” 1909: first separately overprinted stamps issued, 1909-14: stamps of the Russian Levant overprinted “Constantinople,” 1919, May-1923: Poland issued stamps for their consulate, 1919: stamps of Romania overprinted with “Posta Romana Constantinopol,” 1919-23: stamps of Italy overprinted “Costantinopoli” used again; Greece and Egypt also had office in this city.
Constantinople & Danube Line of Steamers: fleet of ships for trade between Constantinople and the Black Sea Ports, 1869.
Constantinopol: overprint on stamps of Romania, 1896-1919:
Constantinopoli: overprint on stamps of Italy, Offices in Turkish Empire.
Constantinopol-Posta Romana: overprint on stamps of Romania, Offices in Turkey.
Constant mat variety: an irregular feature present in the image area of the precancel mat; variety occurs at regular intervals on the finished product.
Constant plate variety (CPV): any printed variety of the intended design caused by an irregular feature in the printing base; occurs at fixed intervals on coils.
Constant variety: a printing variety which appears in the same position of every sheet printed from that plate.
Constatine Postal Serv.: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Constitutional Post: Constitutional Post Office established by Congress 1775.
Construccion: overprint on stamps of Guatemala for a postal tax.
Consulaire: (Fr.) consular. Consular post office: post offices in the Turkish Empire and China for which specially overprinted stamps were issued.
Consular Mail: inscription O.H.M.S., O.H.M.S., unissued Great Britain cinderella by David Horry, 2001.
Consular overprints: semi-official stamps issued by SCADTA, Colombian airline, 1921-23, sold at Colombian consulates to prepay postage within Colombia on mail sent from abroad; overprints on the stamps applied to indicate the originating country. A is Germany, A-U is Argentina or Uruguay, B is Belgium, Bo is Bolivia, Br. Is Brazil, C is Cuba, CR is Costa Rica, Ca is Canada, Ch is Chile, D is Denmark, E is Spain, EU is United States, F is France, GB is Great Britain, I is Italy, H is Netherlands, P is Panama, PE is Peru, SU is Sweden, S is Switzerland and V is Venezuela.
Consular post office: post offices in the Turkish Empire and China for which specially overprinted stamps were issued.
Consular service fee stamps: stamps affixed to documents showing payment of specific fees for various duties of consular officers.
Consumer advocate: USPS officer who represents the interests of the individual mail user.
Contaminated ink: foreign matter appearing on a printed stamp.
Continental Balloon Post: a cover front bearing an imprinted “Hamilton Balloon” stamp, addressed “Continental Balloon Post” and with non-postal markings for Paris and Marseille, ostensibly from 1870, was sold as lot 1037 at Cherrystone Auctions Sale 1203, Dec. 17, 2003.
Continental Bank Note Company: security printer; 1873, May 1: successor to US stamp printing contract from the National Bank Note Co., 1879, Feb. 4: merged into the American Bank Note Company.
Continental Congress: resolved that post riders be stationed at 25 or 30 mile intervals along post roads, stages traveling three times a week,1776.
Continental Postage Meter Co.: U.S. postage meter firm, 1928-31, acquired by Gold Seal Electric Co. in 1930, changed name to U.S. Postal Meter Co. in 1931.
Continental Route: via New York and San Francisco; UPU permitted a surcharge on mail traveling this route in 1881-82.
Continentals: old term used to describe the common European stamps of the 1800s.
Continente: (Port.) inscription of postage due, Portugal.
Contingency stamp: stamp printed at time of a rate change when current issues may not meet postal needs.
Continuous Die Cut: a die cut without any interruptions. See Die Cut, Interrupted Die Cut.
Continuous line: unbroken British Jubilee line, see Jubilee Line.
Continuous overprint: an overall design without regard for placement on any particular stamp.
Continuous watermark: an overall design without regard for placement on any certain stamp
Contract Air Mail (CAM): carriage of mail within the U.S. by a commercial airline on routes authorized by postal and federal authorities; refers to airmail routes July 1926-Feb. 1934; new contracts began in May 1934, but route number differed and these are referred to as “Air Mail Routes.”
Contract station: a sub-unit of a larger post office which is contracted to a private individual, usually located in private business establishment.
Contraffazione: (It.) counterfeit, fake, forgery.
Contramarca: (Sp.) Ecuador control overprint.
Contraseña/Estampillas de Correo: overprint on Escuelas (school) issues for provisional use, Venezuela, 1874.
Contrassegno: (It.) cash on delivery, C.O.D.
Contratacion de Moneda: (Sp.) marking on covers of Banco de España, foreign currency.
Contrefaçon: (Fr.) counterfeit, fake, forgery.
Contre remboursement: (Fr.) cash on delivery, COD.
Control: figures and/or letters printed in a stamp sheet margin to indicate accounting time, distribution and any other manufacturing data, may appear on backs of stamps. – overprints, perfins and underprints to prevent use of stolen stamps.
Controlle 1922: overprint on stamps of Persia (Iran) as a pictorial postcard tax, 1922.
Controlled issue: stamps, although sanctioned by a postal authority, were controlled by someone else, such as the printer.
Controlled mail: mail from one source to another where the sender gets the stamps returned that are used on the mail.
Control letters or numbers: inscription on margin of stamp sheet to denote the printing plate or cylinder on which the sheet was printed.
Control marks: marks placed on the stamp or in the sheet margin by postal authorities for accounting purposes.
Control number: numbers printed on backs of stamp (Spain), or tabs (Tonga) for internal control.
Control overprint: when a large theft of stamps occurs, postal authorities overprinted remaining stamps and the use of any stamps which have not been overprinted was forbidden.
Convenience overpayment: 1: affixing overfranking as postage when exact amount is unavailable. 2: used for currency control post-World War II, Germany.
Control perfin: a perforation made by an affixing machine through the face of a Schermack coil.
Convention, Postal: Universal Postal Union agreement, signed by a postal official and ratified by the head of government.
Convention rate: a special postal rate negotiated between one country and another, aka Treaty Rate.
Convention States: convention status states in the Empire of India: Chamba, Faridot, Gwalior, Jind, Nabha and Patiala; each state had its own overprints on stamps of India, 1950: regular stamps of India replaced all the convention states’ issue.
Convertible booklet: USPS technical specification for a pane of stamps that may be folded into a booklet after removal of the two narrow selvage strips.
Convertible mark: currency unit in Bosnia & Herzegovina.
Convon Natle: (Fr.) national convention.
Convoyeur(s): (Fr.) carrier (of mail on railroad), postmark of postal agent on train.
Coo: Dodecanese Sea, Aegean Islands; 16th century-post: Turkish rulers, 1912-pre: used stamps of Turkey, 1912: No.1, 2 centesimi orange-brown, overprint “CASO” on stamps of Italy, followed by name of island, 1916: first stamps without overprints, 1920: Turkey ceded group to Italy, 1929: general Aegean Islands issues, 1930, 1932: overprint “COO” used on two sets, 1943, Sept.: became part of Greece, 1943: reoccupied by German forces, 1945: liberated by Allied forces, see M.E.F., Middle East Forces, 1945, June 25: British post offices opened, stamps of Britain overprinted “M.E.F.” (Middle East Forces), when islands transferred to Greece, 1947, Mar. 31: British post offices closed, stamps of Greece overprinted “S.D.D.” (Dodecanese Military Occupation), see S.D.D. 1947-summer: stamps of Greece used.
Coo, Cos, Kos: see: Cos.
Cook & Bernheimer: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp.
Cook-Inseln: (Ger.) Cook Islands.
Cook Islands: islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of New Zealand; currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling, 20 shillings = 1 pound, 100 cents = 1 dollar (1967) 1892, May 7: No.1, 1 penny black, first stamps, 1901: became a dependency of New Zealand, 1903-32: separate stamp issues by Aitutaki and Penrhyn, 1919-32: stamps inscribed/overprinted “Rarotonga” name of main island, 1966, Apr. 22: first air mail stamp issued, 1968, Feb. 12: first semipostal stamp issued, 1975: first official stamp issued; see Aitutaki, Niue and Penrhyn.
Cook Islands: overprint 30 June 1948 Atomic Test Bikini Atoll, part of set of eleven overprints, unissued Great Britain cinderella by David Horry, 2001.
Cook Islands – United Kingdom S.M.S.: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Cook Land: bogus North Pole issue in early 1900s.
Cooköarna: (Swed.) the Cook Islands.
Cook Øerne: (Dan.) the Cook Islands.
Cook’s Dispatch: U.S. local post, Baltimore, Md, 1853.
Cooland: 1924 European cinderella used on private postcards that did not go through the mail.
Coolgardie Cycl Express: bicycle service operated in Western Australia in the 1890s, issued local stamps.
Coon’s (J.G.) Carting Express: private freight firm serviced Buffalo, N.Y., used a label, year unknown.
Coop & Co’s Express: local baggage firm serviced Brooklyn and New York City; used a label, year unknown
Cooperation: common design on stamps of the French Community of Nations, 1964.
Co-operative Delivery Service: local parcel firm serviced unknown area; used a stamp.
Cooper’s Express: local post serviced Boston and Lawrence, Mass.; used a label; 1865?
Copa Mundial de Fútbol: (Sp.) World Soccer Cup, topic.
Copenhagen – Lauritzen & Thaulow Local Post: Copenhagen (Dan., København) is the largest city and capital of Denmark located on E coast of Sjælland Island and N portion of Amager Island. Local post established by S. Lauritzen and T. Thaulow, with first “Kjobenhavns by og Hus Telegraf / By Post” local stamps issued 1 September 1880, and with numerous others issued through August 1889. Several other local posts operated during this period, to include: Adam’s Express , Expres-Compagni , Kjobenhavn’s Pakke Expedition , Kjobemhavns Telefon-Kiosker , and Vester- Norre-Osterbroes Pakvogn (q.v. individual Copenhagen Local Post entries).
Copenhagen – Adam’s Expres Local Post: Danish local post established by the Adam’s Express Company, with first “Adams Expres / Kjøbenhavn” local stamps issued in 1888, and with a second different design set-of-5 issued in 1891.
Copenhagen – Expres-Compagni Local Post: Danish local post established in 1880, with first “Universal Expres / Pakke Frimk.” local stamps issued on 1 September, and with several others issued through January 1882.
Copenhagen Foot Post: Founded by the General Postal Authorities in Copenhagen, Denmark, on March 1806. H. E. Riegels employed as postmaster until 1 April 1809, on which date he took over the operation on his own account. Privately operated under the general postal authorities until 14 May 1849, when the Danish Royal Post re-assumed control, continuing to operate the service until 1876. Mails carried by the service had various types of handstamps, primarily a version of “F.P.” letters, similar devices except with added dating, or an identifying single-ring cds.
Copenhagen – Kjobenhavn’ Pakke Expedition Local Post: Danish local post established in 1901 with set of different value local stamps depicting “weighing scales with the value on a parcel in the left pan” issued in the same year.
Copenhagen – Kjobenhavns Telefon-Kiosker: Danish local post established at an unknown turn-of-the-2oth century date, with a set-of-5 local stamps issued, the stamps having several printings distinguished by coarseness or fineness of the print, their shades, and the paper types.
Copenhagen – Lauritzen & Thaulow Local Post: Copenhagen (Dan., København) is the largest city and capital of Denmark located on E coast of Sjælland Island and N portion of Amager Island. Local post established by S. Lauritzen and T. Thaulow, with first “Kjøbenhavns by og Hus Telegraf / By Post” local stamps issued 1 September 1880, and with numerous others issued through August 1889. Several other local posts operated during this period, to include: Adam’s Express, Expres-Compagni, Kjobenhavn’s Pakke Expedition, Kjobemhavns Telefon-Kiosker, and Vester-Norre-Osterbroes Pakvogn (q.v. individual Copenhagen Local Post entries).
Copenhagen-Roskilde Flight: see Denmark – Copenhagen-Roskilde Flight, 1914.
Copenhagen – Vester-Norre-Osterbroes Pakvogn: Danish local post established in 1880, with a set-of-3 local stamps issued during the same year, and with a second set-of-2 local stamps being issued in December 1885. The stamps were used by the parcel delivery company conducting business in the western, northern, and eastern suburbs of Copenhagen. The service was taken over by the Lauritzen & Thaulow company in March 1887.
COPO: Council of Philatelic Organizations, USA.
Copper plate engraving: recessed design engraved upon or transferred to a copper plate, printed impressions show raised lines, now almost entirely superceded by engraving on steel plates; copper plate engraving persisted until recently in France.
Coppia: (It.) pair.
Coppia invertita: (It.) tete-beche pair.
Coppia orizzontale: (It.) horizontal pair.
Coppia verticale: (It.) vertical pair.
Copyright: standard inscription placed in the sheet margin legally protecting design from duplication by unauthorized persons or firms. Designs of U.S. stamps issued after Jan. 1, 1978 may not be reproduced for commercial purposes except under license granted by the USPS. Designs of U.S. stamps issued prior to 1978 are in the public domain.
Copyright block: a margin block of stamps with a copyright notice, started in 1978.
Coquille: (Fr.) misprint. – printing cylinder part.
Coralit: (It.) Corrièri Alta Italia, North Italian Couriers bicycle posts in Italy, 1944- 45: in Feb.1945, used mail franked with local stamps and Italian postage stamps.
CorAllt: Corrieri Alta Italia, Italian local issue, 1944-45.
Coral Sea Islands Territory: bogus, islands off the coast of Queensland.
Corbeil’s Private Post: bogus, Canada, sometime in the 1800s.
Corbera: local, Spanish civil war, Republican, 1937.
Cordial stamps: stamps used on bottles or cases of cordials to pay the US Internal Revenue Tax.
Cordillera: (Sp.) Spanish system in late 1700s where each government unit was responsible for forwarding or circulating official mail to the next unit.
Cordoba: 1): Argentine province; 1858, Oct. 28: first stamps issued, 1865: replaced by stamps of the central government; 2): local, Spanish civil war, Nationalist and Republican, 1936-37.
Cordova: district overprint used on stamps of Mexico, 1856-83.
Core: strip of brown paper attached to the last stamp on a roll of coil stamps.
Corea, (Sp.) Korea
Corean: (Rom) Korean (adj.).
Coree du Nord: (Fr.) North Korea.
Coree du Sud: (Fr.) South Korea.
Corfou: (Fr.) Corfu.
Corfu: island in Ionian Sea, opposite Greek-Albanian border; currency: 100 centesimi = 1 lira, 100 lepta = 1 drachma 1859: No. 1, 1/2 penny orange, 1864: ceded to Greece by Britain, 1916-18: stamps of France with control handstamp Postes Serbes used on Serbian military mail sent through French military postal system, 1917: Corfu issue, surcharge, 1917-18: stamps of Greece surcharged and overprinted, 1922: occupied by Italy (Kerkyra), 1923: overprinted stamps of Italy issued for use on island, 1941: overprinted stamps of Greece issued, 1941: Italian occupation issue had Greek stamps overprinted “Corfu,” 1943: Germany took over occupation from Italy, used stamps of Greece, 1943: stamps of Greece re-introduced; see Ionian Islands.
Corisco: Spanish island colony off coast of Africa; 1868: used stamps of Fernando Poo, 1903 to 1909: issued their own stamps, 1909: Spanish Guinea, then stamps of Rio Muni; see: Eloby, Annobon and Corisco.
Cork & Macroom Direct Railway: Ireland local post.
Cork, Bandon & South Coast Railway: Ireland local post.
Cork, Blackrock & Passage Railway: Ireland local post.
Cork cancels: obliterators made from corks in fancy or plain designs.
Cornella de llobregat: local, Spanish civil war, Republican, 1937.
Corner blocks: a block of stamps taken from the corner of a sheet or pane and identified by the paper margin on two adjacent sides of the block.
Corner card: imprinted name and address of the envelope user, usually placed in the upper left hand corner; an illustration may accompany the printed address.
Corner fold: a corner of a sheet of stamps becomes folded during printing process on a sheet- fed press.
Corner letters: letters in the bottom two corners on early stamps of Great Britain; intended as a security measure against forgery; also known as check letters.
Corner stamp: stamp from the corner of the sheet (1887 definition).
Cornice: (It.) frame.
Corning & Tappan: U.S. private die perfumery proprietary stamp.
Cornish National Post: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Cornwell’s Madison Square Post office: U.S. local post, New York, N.Y., 1856.
Coro and la Vela: local, Venezuela, 1867-89.
Corocco: state near Chile used in 1913 book Clue of the Postage Stamp by Arthur Bray, bogus stamp affixed to book cover.
Corona: 1. (It., Sp.) crown; 2. Dalmatia overprint on stamps of Italy; also Austria, Italian Occupation.
Coronation: common design on stamps of the British Commonwealth of Nations, 1937, 1953.
Coronation issue: series of stamps issued to commemorate the coronation of a king or queen.
Coroncine: (It.) nickname of Italian stamps with a small crown overprint, 1934.
COROS: Collectors of Religion on Stamps, USA.
Corporate printing: commercial printing of actual stamp, printed in a different color from the final stamps, and overprinted with the company name and “specimen” or equivalent.
Cor postal: (Fr.) post-horn.
Corps Expeditionnaire/Franco-Anglais/Cameroun: overprint on stamps of Gabon whose inscriptions read “Congo Francais” and “Afrique Equatoriale,” 1915.
Correio: Brazil and Portugual word for posts. – (With no country name and denominations in “Reis”) Portugal.
Correio Aereo: Portuguese for air mail posts.
Correios e Telegraphos: (Port.) Post and Telegraph.
Correio India: inscription of stamps of Portuguese India.
Correo(s): (Sp.) mail, post, postage.
Correo(s) Aereo, Aéreo: (Sp.) airmail.
Correo Aereo Interior: Dominican Republic domestic airmail.
Correo Ambulante: (Sp.) traveling post office (T.P.O.).
Correo Certificado: (Sp.) registered mail.
Correo Chanadina: Colombia.
Correo de campaña: (Sp.) field post, field post office. – also stamps prepared in1939 but never issued.
Correo de Chile via Aeria B. Aires Agosto 5, 1919: handstamp on covers carried by Italian pilot Lt. Antonio Locatelli on a flight from Santiago to Buenos Aires.
Correo de Coro a la Vela y viceversa: label for town in Venezuela that had a private postal service operating by rail between Coro and La Vela about 1867.
Correo de la Corona: (Sp.) Spanish Royal Mail Service, 15th century.
Correo de paloma: (Sp.) pigeon post.
Correo di lata: (Sp.) tin can mail.
Correo Espanol Marruecos: Spain, Offices in Morocco.
Correo Espanol Tanger: Spanish Morocco for International City of Tangiers.
Correo Interior: (Sp.) local mail, posted and delivered in same city or town, Spain 1853 issue.
Correo Maritimo: (Sp.) ship post.
Correo Mayores: (Sp.) privately run colonial postal system established in the New World in 1767.
Correos de cohete: (Sp.) rocket mail.
Correos des Infectado: (Sp.) mail from possible infected areas.
Correos de la Chimba: local ship post, Bolivia.
Correos de los EE. UU. De Venuz: inscription on stamps of United States of Venezuela, 1865-70.
Correos fonopostal: (Sp.) recorded disks sent by mail; stamp, issued by Argentina, 1939.
Correos franco: (Sp.) post paid.
Correos 1854 Y 55: Philippines, Spanish Dominion.
Correos Maritimos de la Estado: (Sp.) maritime delivery established in1764 in Spain to provide mail delivery to the various Spanish colonies.
Correos Nacionales: (Sp.) Colombia.
Correos Oaxaca: Mexican State of Oaxaca.
Correo Submarino: (Sp.) submarine mail; 1938, one voyage took place; Barcelona to Mahón and back via Marseilles.
Correos y Telegrafos, Correos y Telegs: (Sp.) Argentina inscription for mail and telegraph, 19th century issues.
Correo Urbano: (Sp.) local post.
Correo Urbano de Bogota: Colombia (for City of Bogota).
Correspondencia a Debe: (Sp.) inscription on stamps of Panama for postage due.
Correspondencia Falta de Franqueo: (Sp.) unstamped letter.
Correspondencia Sibrante: (Sp.) undelivered mail, return to sender.
Correspondencia Urgente: (Sp.) special delivery inscription, found on Express Letter stamps of Spain.
Correos Urbanos Medellin: Colombia local issue for state of Medellin.
Correo Urgente: (Sp.) express delivery.
Correspondence art: labels designed to simulate stamps.
Correspondencias registradas: (Sp.) appears on seals to indicate registration.
Corriente: (Sp.) normal, or average, common as opposed to rare.
Corriere scatola di latta: (It.) tin can mail.
Corrosion stain: a printing variety caused by corrosion on a metal plate.
Cortado por mitad: (Sp.) bisect.
Corrientes: province in Argentina; 1856, Aug. 21-Sep. 11: first stamps issued. 1880, Aug. 21: replaced by stamps of Argentina.
Corsair Express: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Corse: (Fr.) Corsica.
Cortado: (Sp.) cut close.
Cortado a serpentina: (Sp.) serpentine roulette.
Corte: (Sp.) tear.
Corte de lineas: (Sp.) roulette.
Cortegana: local, Spanish civil war, Nationalist, 1936-37.
Cortes de la Frontera: local, Spanish civil war, Nationalist, 1936-37.
Corumbela: local, Spanish civil war, Nationalist, 1936-37.
Coruna: local, Spanish civil war, Nationalist and Republican, 1936-37.
Cory and Smith Parcel Delivery: local parcel firm serviced an unknown area; used a stamp, year unknown.
Cos: Dodecanese Island, Aegean Sea; 16th century-post: Turkish rulers, 1912-pre: used stamps of Turkey, 1912: overprint “Egeo” on stamps of Italy, followed by name of island, 1916: first stamps without overprints, 1920: Turkey ceded group to Italy, 1929: general Aegean Islands issues, 1930, 1932: overprint “Coo” used on two sets, 1943, Sept.: became part of Greece, 1943: reoccupied by German forces, 1945: liberated by allied forces, 1945-47: stamps of Britain overprinted MEF (Middle East Forces), when islands transferred to Greece, 1947: stamps of Greece overprinted SDD (Dodecanese Military Occupation), 1947-summer: stamps of Greece used.
Cosme Colony: Paraguay bogus overprint for Australian settlement.
Cosmonaut: astronauts of the former Soviet Union.
Cosmos: (Fr.) space.
COSSU: Chess-on-Stamps Study Unit.
Costa Atlantica B: (Sp.) overprint on stamps of Nicaragua for use in province of Zelaya, 1907.
Costa Atlantica C: (Sp.) overprint on stamps of Nicaragua for use in province of Cabo Gracias A Dios, 1907.
Costa de Marfil: (Sp.) Ivory Coast.
Costa de Oro: (Sp.) Gold Coast.
Costa Rica: Central America; currency:8 reales = 100 centavos = 1 peso, 100 centimos = 1 colon (1900) 1821-pre: under Spanish rule, 1821: part of the United Provinces of Central America, 1838: became independent republic, 1863, Mar.: No.1, 1/2 reis blue, first stamps issued, 1883: first official stamp issued, 1883, Jan. 1: joined the UPU, 1885-89: stamps of Costa Rica overprinted with “Guanacaste” to celebrate sovereignty, 1903: first postage due stamp issued, 1919, June 4: U.S. Marines land during revolution, 1922: first semipostal stamp issued, 1926, June 4: first air mail stamp issued.
Cote: (Fr.) price, valuation, quotation.
Côte de Somalis: (Fr.) inscription used on stamps of Somali Coast, 1894-1902.
Côte d’Ivoire: (Fr.) Ivory Coast.
Côte d’Or.: (Fr.) Gold Coast.
Côte Francais des Somalis: (Fr.) French Somali Coast.
Côtele: (Fr.) paper that resembles laid paper but the variation is obtained by mechanical means and is not in the paper paste.
Côte vue (carte postale): (Fr.) picture side of post card.
Cottbus: local, German Democratic Republic, 1945-46.
Cotton fiber: a strong and stable fiber that provides archival qualities to paper.
Cotton Order Stamps: stamps produced by the BEP for a subsidy program that permitted low income families to buy goods made with cotton.
Cotton reels: first circular issues of British Guiana named due their similarity to the labels on reels of sewing cotton, 1850-51.
Cottrell Press: single-color webfed intaglio press used at the BEP starting in 1956; officially known as Presses 801, 802, 803, 804 and 805.
Couché (papier): (Fr.) chalky (paper), coated.
Coudekerque: city in northern France; 1940: German overprint on French stamps used.
Couleur: (Fr.) color.
Counani, Free State of: bogus labels in 1886, 1893 and 1904 for all the land north of the Amazon River.
Counter auction: material on display in showroom of stamp dealer with a specified closing date, starting bid; customer sees previous bid and can enter his/her registered number (given by stamp dealer), and enter a higher bid before closing date and time.
Counterfeit: an imitation or forgery of a genuine postage stamp or postal marking that has been created to defraud the collector or government.
Counterfeit money: post office handstamp “Official Notice” warning recipient that envelope may contain counterfeit money and letter with contents should be returned to the local post office; contents known as “green goods” to postal officials; prevalent in late 1800s.
Counterfeit, postal: forgery of a stamp produced to defraud a postal administration of the postage used for mailing.
Counterfoil: receipt half of a two-part stamp, usually parcel post issues, one half affixed to the mail pieces, other half kept by sender as receipt.
Counting numbers: Cottrell Press used them when printing coil stamps. – numbers jet-sprayed on backs of coil stamps at regular intervals.
Country: collections specializing in the postal issues of one nation.
Country code: the address abbreviation to designate the destination country for international mail; while there has been no officially mandated code, the UPU has established a set of abbreviations which are generally accepted, such as A = Austria, D = Germany, CH = Switzerland, etc.
Country name: Universal Postal Union regulations of 1874 decreed that all stamps destined for international use must have the country name inscribed; only exception being that of Great Britain which could use the effigy of the reigning monarch.
Coupé (en deux): (Fr.) cut (bisected).
Coupe’s Express: local post serviced Washington State, used a label; 1864-74.
Coupon: term for a non-postal label attached to a postage stamp, first used in Czechoslovakia in 1930.
Coupon Réponse International (CRI): (Fr.) international reply coupon.
Coupure: (Fr.) cut-square.
Courant: (Fr.) common.
Courant (timbre d’usage): (Fr.) current, regular use, definitive.
Courcelles de Tour: local provisional, France, 1944.
Courier: local, Chemnitz, Germany, 1907.
Courier 1971 Post: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Courier services: delivery services operated by governments for official mail; labels, cachets and stationery have been utilized for this purpose.
Courland: 1945, Apr.: four German stamps overprinted; see: Kurland.
Couronne: (Fr.) crown.
Cour Permanente de Justice Internationale: overprint on stamps of Netherlands for mail from International Court of Justice, 1934, amended to “Cour Internationale de Justice.”
Courrier: (Fr.) the mail, post, mail boat, mail system.
Courrier-convoyeur(s): (Fr.) postal agent(s) on a train.
Courrier d’bidon: (Fr.) tin can mail.
Courrier de la Societé des Nations: (Fr.) overprint on stamps of Switzerland for League of Nations.
Courrier du Bureau International d’Education: (Fr.) overprint on stamps of Switzerland for International Bureau of Education.
Courrier du Bureau International du Travail: (Fr.) 1: overprint on stamps of Switzerland for International Labor Bureau. 2: Commissioner of Police, South Australia official overprint, 1868-74. 3: overprint on stamps of Ivory Coast for parcel post. 4: overprint on stamps of Colombia, sold in Costa Rica to frank mail carried by SCADTA airlines.
Courrier Maritime: (Fr.) ship mail.
Courseur (pour Pneumatique): (Fr.) bullet (for pneumatic post).
Court Bureau: local printed in London, 1890, to prepay services for collection of mail on Sundays and delivered to railroad stations for delivery on Mondays, 1890-91.
Court de marge: (Fr.) cut close.
Courte (series): (Fr.) incomplete set with high values missing.
Courtesy air mail: foreign origin mail accepted for airmail service without an international postal treaty or agreement to accept it.
Courtesy reply mail (CRM): preaddressed return envelope or postcard that mailers supply to a customer for reply; the customer pays the postage, USPS term.
Courtland, Al. Paid 5: see: Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Courvoisier, Helio SA: printing firm in Switzerland, formed in 1880, that has printed stamps for more than 70 postal administrations, closed April 30, 2001.
Coutinho, Carlos Viegas Gago: common design on stamps of Portugal and Colonies, 1967.
Couvert: (Ger.) envelope, cover.
Couverture(s): (Fr.) cover(s) (of booklets).
Cov.: abbreviation for cover.
Covel coils: privately perforated second Bureau issue coil stamps made by the Covel Mfg. Co. using a Rossback perforator.
Cover: 1. any postally used envelope, folded letter sheet, postal card or other piece of postal stationery. 2. an envelope or item of postal stationery that has been canceled as a souvenir. 3: Brief (Ger.), Lettre, Entier (Fr.), Lettera,
Busa (It.), Carta, Sobre (Sp.).
Cover census: a long-term study to determine relative scarcity of certain stamps on cover or piece, with details regarding dates, postmarks, addresses, etc.
Covered Wagon Post: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Cover face: an envelope’s front portion that has been cut away from rest of envelope.
Cowan paper: a thin, hard, wove paper without watermark; made by A. Cowan and Sons, Ltd, London for 1902 New Zealand stamps.
Cow Post: Kuhpost, mail service operated between Rothenuffeln and Hille in Germany in 1878.
Cox: local, Spanish civil war, Republican, 1937.
Coyanza: local, Spanish civil war, Nationalist, 1937.
C. P.: 1. Campbell Paterson Catalog of New Zealand. 2. commemorative panel; Scott Catalogue number suffix to identify stamps other than standard postage.
CPASC: Canadian Permanent Army Service Corps; see: RCASC.
CPGHNA (looks like): inscription on stamps of Serbia.
Cpl: see: Complete set.
CPNY: Censorship Passed New York, military mail marking.
CPO: USPS term for Community post office, operated by persons who are not postal employees.
C Press: a three-color intaglio Giori webfed combination press used by the BEP starting about 1982; officially called Press 901.
CPU: USPS term for contract postal unit, operated under contract by persons who are not postal employees.
CPV: see: Constant plate variety.
CQ: airmail parcel post; Scott Catalogue number prefix to identify stamps other than standard postage.
C Press: three-color Goebel intaglio press used by the BEP.
CR: 1. Caledonian Railway. 2. Cacabau Rex, native king of Fiji, 1871-74 issues. 3. Costa Rica, country code as used by UPU.
Craciun: (Rom.) Christmas.
Cracked gum: small particles in the gum caused by hand-rolling the sheets, or by age and atmosphere conditions.
Cracked plate: stamps that show evidence that the plate from which they were printed was cracked.
Crack out: opening of the plastic case containing an encapsulated stamp.
Cramoisi: (Fr.) crimson (color).
Crane & Co’s Express: local post serviced Boston, Mass., Bangor and Portland, Maine, used a label, 1859-60?
Cranes Express: phantom post, Pine St., N.Y.; used a stamp.
Crane’s Express: local parcel firm serviced Boston and Middleton, Mass., used a label, 1869.
Crane’s Express-NJ: local parcel firm serviced Rahway, N.J. and New York City; used a label, year unknown.
Crash cover: a cover saved from the wreck of a plane, train or other vehicle with a postal marking explaining the damaged condition, first recorded example was rescued from the crash of the Grand Trunk railway in Canada in 1873.
Crazy perfs: irregular perforations caused by operator error or a malfunction of the feeding mechanism.
Crease: a fold mark remaining on a postal piece.
Creased paper: caused by a crease in the paper before or during the printing process.
Creased stamp: crease happened after the printing.
Crediton Postal Service: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Crefeld: see Krefeld.
Crem: (Rom.) cream-colored.
Crema: (It., Sp.) cream (color).
Creme: (Fr.) cream (color).
Cremisi: (It.) crimson (color).
Crescent: printer’s samples of John Waddington, Kirkstall Ltd., England.
Crescent, S.S.: steamship of the Danube Steam Navigation Company; 1834: built for the Levant, then to the Austrian Lloyd.
Cressman & Co.’s Penny Post: U.S. local post, Philadelphia, Pa., 1856.
Creta: (It., Sp.) Crete.
Crete: Mediterranean island, south of Greece; currency: 40 paras = 1 piaster, 4 metalik = 1 grosion (1899), 100 lepta = 1 drachma (1900) 15th century-post: province of Turkey, 1898: British district of Heraklion (Candia) and Russian district of Rethymnon occupation forces issued stamps inscribed in Greek, 1898: No.1, 20 paras violet, stamps of France and Italy overprinted with name of the island, 1898-Dec. 15, 1914: stamps of Austria overprinted, 1899-pre: stamps of Turkey used, then stamps of joint occupying powers; Britain (1898-99), Russia (1899), Austria (1903-14), France (1903-13) and Italy (1900-12), 1899: declared autonomous republic, 1900, Mar.1: first stamps of Crete, 1901: first postage due stamp issued, 1908, Jan. 14: first official stamp issued, 1908: union with Greece declared, Cretan stamps overprinted “Hellas” (Crete) 1913, May 13: island became part of Greece, Greek stamps used, WW II: German military stamps overprinted “Inselpost” for German troops, see Crete, British offices.
Crete, Austrian offices: 1900s: operated in Canea, Candia and Rethymnon, 1903: stamps of Austria surcharged in francs and centimes, 1914, Dec.: offices closed.
Crete-British Administration, forged issues: 1898-99 20 papa, Sc. 3, 5.
Crete, British offices: 1898: special stamps issued for use from British post offices, 1899: post offices closed; British zone of joint administration includes France, Italy, Russia, 1898-1900: stamps issued until establishment of autonomous government.
Crete, forged issue: 1905 Therison revolution, unissued.
Crete, French Offices: 1902-03: No.1, 1 centime gray, “Crete” inscription/surcharge in Blanc, Mouchon and Merson key types, 1914: post offices closed.
Crete, Italian offices: 1900: No.1, 1 piaster blue, stamps of Italy overprinted “La Canea” surcharged in Turkish currency, 1912: last issue appeared.
Crete, Revolutionary Assembly of: 1905: stamps issued by rebels who tried to obtain unification of Crete with Greece.
Crete, Russian offices: 1899, May 13-July 29: handstamped with Russian coat of arms for city of Rethymnon administration.
Crevichon: Great Britain local carriage label, Jethou.
Crevillente: local, Spanish civil war, Republican, 1937
Crimea: South Russia; 1854-57: stamps of Britain used during Crimean campaign, 1918, Nov.-20: overprint on stamps of Russia by revolutionary Kuban (Tatar) government, 1918-post: occupied by French, Bolsheviks, Gen. Denikin, 1921: stamps of Ukraine surcharged for use in Crimea, WW II: occupied by Germans and made part of the Ukraine district, 1992-post: many bogus local post issues exist.
Crimea Regional Government: 1918-19, issued two Russian surcharged stamps, one for currency; see Russia, South.
Crimée: (Fr.) Crimea.
Criss-crossed: a term used to describe how the booklets are packaged in bulk for eventual distribution through certain vending machines; it doesn’t change the stamp or stamp format in any way.
Cristal (papier): (Fr.) glassine.
Crittenton, Charles N.: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp.
Croacia: (Sp.) Croatia.
Croat, Administration of Bosnia: see Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Croatia: Southeastern Europe, Yugoslavia; official name of postal administration: Croatian Post Inc. currency: 100 paras = 1 dinar (1991), 100 bavida = 1 kuna, 100 lipas = 1 kuna (1994) 1918-pre: province of Hungary, 1918: overprint on stamps of Hungary, listed under Yugoslavia, 1921, Dec. 24: joined the UPU, 1941, April 12: No. 1, 50 paras orange, first semipostal, postage due stamps issued, 1941, Apr. 16: first postage due stamp issued, 1941, May 10: first semipostal stamp issued, 1942: first official stamp issued, 1943: stamp show held at Zagreb while occupied, 1945: became part of the Yugoslav Federation, 1951: bogus stamps by Croatia Government in Exile, 1991, Nov. 21: first stamps independent fromYugoslavia, declared independence, civil war between Croats and Serbs, 1991: first air mail stamps, 1992, July 20: rejoined the UPU, 1995: Croatian government regained control.
Croatian Government in Exile: see N. D. Hrvatska.
Croatie: (Fr.) Croatia.
Croazia: (It.) Croatia.
Croce Rossa: (It.) Red Cross.
Crociera Italiana 1924: overprint on stamps of Italy for propaganda tour, 1924.
Croissant Rouge Turc: (Fr.) Turkey Red Cross semi-postals.
Croix de Lorraine: (Fr.) Cross of Lorraine, Gaullist cross.
Croix Rouge: (Fr.) inscription for Red Cross on semi-postals.
Cromalin: photographer’s proof that prints exactly what is seen on the transparency, ®DuPont.
Crooked Lake Steamer: steamer ran between Penn Yan and Hammondsport, N.Y. 1868, shield type handstamp.
Crook, Oliver & Co.: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp.
Crosby’s City Post: U.S. local post, New York, N.Y., 1870.
Cross Border: cover collection of mail as it crossed the border between Canada and its provinces and the US from April 1851, when a combined rate between the two countries was established.
Cross gutter block: a block of stamps with the intersection of the vertical and horizontal gutters.
Crosshatching: a combination of various lines used to provide a background for a design.
Crossing off: see: Bidding circle.
Cross of Lorraine: (Fr.) double-barred cross symbol used as an anti-tuberculosis emblem on stamps and Christmas seals.
Cross of Malta: a cross of eight points, formed of four triangles with their top points meeting in the center with their bases indented.
Cross Pattée: Heraldic cross where the arms widen towards the outer extremities; which are formed of straight lines.
Cross Post: British term for “cross road letters” that could go from one part of the country to another without having to go to London for rerouting; established in 1720.
Cross Writing: In 1840 letters were partially charged by the number of pages in the letter; sender rotated the sheet of paper rotated one-quarter turn and wrote additionally across the lines already written.
Crown Agents: originally a British official government body to act as “agents for the colonies” on Jan. 1, 1980, changed to providing arrange of philatelic services to various postal administrations throughout the world.
Crown and Posthorn: newspaper stamps of Hungary.
Crowned circle: circle with crown on top with word “Free” or “Paid” along with city, indicates that the postage has been prepaid or is not payable; used in British areas prior to introduction of adhesive stamps.
Crown colony: a British colony directly under the control of the home government.
Croydon – Gatwick Post: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Crozet Islands: 1876, Jan. 1: joined the UPU as a French Territory.
C.R.p.P: correspondance Russe par Prusse (Fr.) mail from Russia via Prussia, 1866.
Cruz Roja: (Sp.) Red Cross.
Cruz Vermelha: (Port.) Red Cross Portugal semi-postal.
Crveni Krst: stamps of Yugoslavia, Offices Abroad.
CS: 1. precedes the European postal code on addresses in Czechoslovakia, such as CS-15000, Prague. 2. (It.) Correspondenza Sarda, pre-adhesive postmark on mail from Kingdom of Sardinia.
Cs: overprint on stamps of Hungary to indicate validity, 1946.
C. S.: Chief Secretary, South Australia official overprint,1868-74.
CSA: Confederate States of America. CSA issues refer to the general and provisional stamp issues produced by the Confederacy.
CSAC: Citizens Stamp Advisory Committee.
Csád: (Hung.) Chad, Tschad.
C. S. A. R.: Central South African Railways, Transvaal Railway stamps.
Csatorna Szigetek: (Hung.) the Channel Islands.
CSDA: Canadian Stamp Dealers Association
Cseh: (Hung.) Czech.
Csehország: (Hung.) Czech Republic.
Csehszlovák: (Hung.) Czechoslovakian.
Csehszlovákia: (Hung.) Czechoslovakia.
C.S.F.P.: (Fr.) “Chambre Syndicale Française de la Philatelie” French Philatelic Traders Society.
CSG: Charles S. Gay, BEP employee initials, 1906-1928; see Plate Finisher, Siderographer.
C. Sgn.: Colonial Surgeon, South Australia official overprint, 1868-74.
C.S.1.R.: (Fr.) Correspondance Sarde 1 Rayon, Kingdom of Sardinia Mail, First Radius; mail to nearby nations.
C.S.I.R/VINCEREMO: (It.) bogus, Italian Expeditionary Force in Russia/We Will Win, overprint on stamps of Italy.
C.S.N.E.T.P: (Fr.) “Chambre Syndicale des Negociants et Experts en Timbres-Poste” Philatelic Traders and Experts Society.
Csomag: (Hung.) overprint on Hungarian inflation issues for parcel, 1946.
Csomog: (Hung.) package, parcel.
Csomagposta: (Hung.) parcel post.
Cso Posta: (Hung.) pneumatic mail.
C Stamp: US non-denominated stamp issued in 1981 with a value of 20¢.
Csütörtök: (Hung.) Thursday.
CT: (It.) “Corrispondenza Ticinese” prepayment hand stamp from Ticino Canton of Switzerland. 2: USPS abbreviation for Connecticut.
Ct: (Fr.) abbreviation for carnet, booklet.
C. T.: Commissioner of Titles, South Australia official overprint, 1868-74.
CTA: (Sp.) abbreviation of “completa” used in auction catalogs, a complete set or series.
C-T-C: Celebrate the Century, a term used by the USPS for the various sheets of postage stamps issued for the 1900s.
CTO: see: Canceled-to-Order.
CTOT: unit of currency on stamps of Bulgaria.
Ctvrtek: (Czech.) Thursday.
Ctyrblok: (Czech.) block-of-4.
Ctyrblok s Deskovou Znackou: (Czech.) plate block-of-4; block-of-4 with plate marking(s).
CU: Cuba, country code as used by UPU.
Cuadernillo: (Sp.) (stamp) booklet.
Cuadriculado: (Sp.) quadrille.
Cuautla: district in Mexico; 1856-83: overprint used on stamps of Mexico, 1867: No.1, 2 reales black, provisional stamp during revolt to oust French from Mexico.
Cuba: Largest island in the Caribbean, south of Florida; currency: 8 reales plata = 1 peso, 100 centesimos = 1 escudo = 1 pesata (1867), 1,000 milesimas = 100 centavos = 1 peso 1511-1898: under Spanish rule, 1855, Apr.: No.1, 1/2 reales plata blue-green, Spanish administration issued first stamps jointly valid with Puerto Rico, 1868-pre: no country name inscription, denominated in currency, 1868: stamps of Cuba handstamped Habilitado por la Nacion (Sp.) for use in the Philippines, 1873: Cuba had own stamps, inscribed “Ultramar” (overseas), 1877: first stamps inscribed “Cuba,” 1898, Dec. 19-1899: surcharge on stamps of Puerto Principe, Cuba with habilitado and new value; issued under administration of the U.S., 1899: postage due stamp issued, 1899, Sept. 30: five general use stamps issued under U.S. military rule, plus special delivery; printed by the U.S. Bureau of Printing and Engraving, 1902, May 20: Cuban republic established, 1902, Oct. 4: joined the UPU, 1909: became an independent republic, with a U.S. military base at Guantanamo, 1914: first postage due stamps issued under U.S. administration, 1917, Mar. 8: U.S. Marines land at Santiago, 1927, Nov.1: first air mail stamp issued, 1938, Nov. 23: first semipostal stamp issued, 1938, Dec. 1: first postal tax stamp issued.
Cuba: overprint on U.S. Special delivery stamps for when territory was ceded to the U.S. following Spanish-American war in 1899.
Cuba-American Postal Services: mail agencies in Cuba used U.S. stamps and special postmarks during Spanish-American War.
Cuba impresos: inscription for newspaper stamps of Cuba under Spanish administration.
Cubierta: (Sp.) government-issued label attached to insured mail in Colombia, 1865 to 1909.
Cúcuta: city in Colombia, issued its own provisional stamps, 1900-06
Cuenca: local, Spanish civil war, Republican, 1937.
Cuernavaca: stamp issued for Mexican city during fighting to oust French from Mexico, 1867.
Cuervo Gold, Republic of: liquor firm fantasy for Caribbean island.
Cuevas Bajas: local, Spanish civil war, Nationalist, 1937.
Cuevas de Almanzora: local, Spanish civil war, Republican, 1937.
Cuevas de San Marcos: local, Spanish civil war, Nationalist, 1937.
Cuevas de Vinroma: local, Spanish civil war, Republican, 1937.
Cuevas del Becerro: local, Spanish civil war, Nationalist, 1937.
Cullar-Baza: local, Spanish civil war, Republican, 1937.
Cullera: local, Spanish civil war, Republican, 1937.
Culoare, culorile: (Rom.) color, colors.
Culture Carriers: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Culverston Local Post: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Cumbres Mayores: local, Spanish civil war, Nationalist, 1937.
Cumhuriyetin 15 inc yil donumu hatirasi: (Turk.) 15th anniversary of the Turkish Republic.
Cumming’s City Post: U.S. local post, New York, N.Y., 1844.
Cundinamarca: department in Colombia; 1870-1904: retained right to operate their own postal service and issue stamps, 1904: stamps of Colombia used.
Cuneiform: ancient script on clay tablets, then baked and hardened, transmitted usually by the royal court.
Cuño: (Sp.) die.
C.U.P.A.E.: (Sp.) Congreso de la Unión Postal de las Américas y España, 1946.
Curaçao: Dutch island colony off coast of Venezuela; currency: 100 cents = 1 gulden 1873, May 23: inscription of “Curaçao” on their own stamps, 1889: first postage due stamp issued, 1929: first air mail stamp issued, 1941: first official stamp issued, 1948: renamed Netherlands Antilles, 1949: inscription on stamps, “Ned. Antillen” and “Nederlandse Antillen” stamps used in other Netherlands Antilles islands; Aruba, Bonaire, Saba, Eustatius and part of St. Maartin. 1954: became part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, 1986, Jan. 1: Aruba achieved a separate status and issued its own stamps; see Aruba
Curie, Pierre and Marie: common design on stamps of the French Community of Nations, 1938.
Curiosi: postal inspectors, Roman imperial postal system, about 250 BC.
Curly head: nickname for Spanish stamps depicting curly hair of 12-year old King Alfonso XIII, 1898.
Currency: the monetary value expressed on the postage stamps.
Currency stamp: – British and French post office term for handstamps stating a specific amount of currency. – postage or fiscal stamps used as units of currency during coinage shortage.
Current: term used to describe postal items that are presently available at the post office.
Current number: numbers inserted in the margins of the plates of British and British Colonial stamps, indicating order in which printed, irrespective of the face value of the stamps, or the countries.
Currier & Atkinson’s Express: local post serviced Boston and Gloucester, Mass., used labels, 1850?
Currier & Co.’s Express: local parcel firm serviced Boston and Gloucester, Mass., used labels, 1850?
Currier Express: local post serviced Boston and Gloucester, Mass., used labels, 1850?
Cursive: (Rom.) italics.
Curtis & Brown: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp.
Curtis & Brown Mfg. Co.: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp.
Curtis, Jeremiah & Son: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp.
Curtis’s Post: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Curved plate: on rotary presses are used for most modern stamps; also known as cylindrical plate.
Cuvertology: term for picture (illustrated) postcards in Germany, late 1800’s.
Curzay: local provisional, France, 1944.
Cusbah: Indian States term for village or township. Customs labels/markings: indicating that packages from another country have been examined for dutiable articles.
Cushing Pony Express: local post operated between Houston, Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi during Civil War, used labels; 1862-64.
Customs stamp: fiscal stamp to collect small sums payable as import duty.
Cutar: local, Spanish civil war, Nationalist, 1937.
Cut cancellations: some canceling devices make cuts through revenue stamps and documents to prevent reuse; may also be hand cut.
Cutcherry: Indian States term for court house, office.
Cut close: imperforate stamps, if when separated by cutting, are cut too close to the design.
Cut corner: part of the upper right corner of an envelope or card that has been removed.
Cutie postala: (Rom.) mail box, letter box.
Cut-outs: embossed stamps from postal stationery that are cut out and used as postage.
Cut square: imperforate stamps cut from postal stationery with the corners of the original paper left intact.
Cutter & Co. Express: private mail delivery firm serviced southeastern Canada, used labels, year unknown.
Cutting and Co’s Express: local parcel delivery firm, serviced Boston, Mass., and parts of Maine; used labels; 1850?
Cuttings Despatch Post: U.S. local post, Buffalo, N.Y., 1847.
Cut to register: watermarked paper cut so that the watermark design falls into correct position in each sheet of stamps.
Cut to shape: 1: an essay or proof cut close to the edges of the design, following the shape of the frame; creating hybrid proofs. 2: Many British octagonal stamps were cut to the frame line of the design.
Cuzco: town in Peru, provisional issues of Arequipa overprinted “Cuzco”; 1881-85: during war with Chile, “Franco/10/Cuzco” overprint on Peru postage due labels.
CV: 1. catalog value. 2. Cape Verde, country code as used by UPU. 3. Charles Vermeule, BEP employee initials, 1906-1928; see Plate Finisher, Siderographer.
CVDeB: Clyde V. DeBinder, BEP employee initials, 1906-1928; see Plate Finisher, Siderographer.
CVP: computer vended postage.
CV da Trieste: (It.) Col Vapore da Trieste from Trieste by steamship, pre-adhesive postmark.
CV da Venezia: (It.) Col Vapore da Venezia from Venice by steamship, pre-adhesive postmark
C.V.I.: Col Vapore Italiano (It.) by Italian steamer.
C.VL.: (Fr.) Correspondence Valaisanne; pre-adhesive postmark used on Wallis region of Switzerland, 1935.
Cvr: abbreviation for cover or postal stationery entire.
C. W.: Canada West, when used in a postmark.
Cwladfa Patagonia: bogus for Colony of Patagonia, Aegentina.
CWO: cash with order.
C. X. C.: Cyrillic overprint on stamps of Bosnia and Herzegovina for Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia)
CY: Cyprus, country code as used by UPU.
Cyanblå: (Dan., Swed.) cyano-blue (color).
Cycle Express Company, Limited: private delivery firm for letters, telegrams and messages; located in Coolgardie, Western Australia, late 1800s.
Cylinder: used to print photogravure stamps, may be numbered.
Cylinder number: in British and Commonwealth stamp sheets, if the number has a period, it is from the right side of the cylinder, if there is no period, it is from the left side; in more than one color is used, the numbers will be in the color applied by that particular cylinder. – plate number of an Andreotti or “A” Press printing cylinder.
Cylinder paper watermark: By attaching pieces to the wire cloth covering the cylinder, fewer fibers were collected during the settling process, producing a watermark.
Cylinderpressen: (Swed.) cylinder press.
Cylinder seal stamps: earliest seal carvings were cylindrical symbols distributed around the curve of a small cylinder, 3500-2300 B.C., originated in Mesopotania; this was rolled on moist clay tablets.
Cymru: Welsh propaganda label.
Cypern: (Dan., Swed.) Cyprus
Cypher stamps: printed adhesives showing Great Britain’s monarch initials, used to cover the staple with which revenue documents were affixed to the documents, preventing their removal and reuse, 1701.
Cyprus: Mediterranean island, off the coast of Turkey; official name of postal administration: Cyprus Postal Services currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling, 40 paras = 1 piaster, 9 piasters = 1 shilling, 20 shillings = 1 pound, 1,000 milliemes = 1 pound (1955), 100 cents = 1 pound (1983) currency (Turkish Rep. of North Cyprus) 1,000 milliemes = 1 pound, 100 kurus = 1 lira (1978) 1517-1878: Turkish possession, 1864-post: stamps of Austrian Levant used at Austrian post office at Larnaca, 1878, July 28: British occupation, stamps of Britain used, 1880, Apr. 1: No.1, 1/2 penny rose, first stamps issued, British stamps overprinted “CYPRUS,” 1881, July 1: Cyprus definitives issued, 1878-81: British stamps used without overprint in some towns, 1881: replaced by British colonial first definitives, 1914: Britain annexed country, 1924: became a Crown Colony, 1939-45: British troop base, field post offices used, 1960, Aug. 16: became a republic within the British Commonwealth, 1961, Nov. 23: joined the UPU, 1974, Dec. 2: first postal tax stamp issued,1974, July 20: Turkey invaded Cyprus dividing the country, 1975, Feb. 13: Turkish Cypriot federated state declared, Turkish Cyprus stamps not recognized by the UPU, 1983, Nov. 15: Turkish area named Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, Cyprus stamps show name of country in Greek, Turkish and English.
Cyprus: overprint, Cyprus crossed out, replaced with Greek characters for Cyprus; unissued Great Britain cinderella by David Horry, 2001.
Cyprus Kypros Kibris: inscription on stamps of Cyprus with the country name in English, Greek and Turkish, 1962.
Cyprus, Turkish Republic of Northern: northern 40% of the island of Cyprus; currency: 1,000 milliemes = 1 pound, 100 kurus = 1 Turkish lira (1978) 1974, July 27: No. 1, 3 m multicolor, 1983, Nov. 15: Turkey declared North Cyprus independent, 1995, July 24: first postal tax stamp; see Cyprus.
C. X. C.: Cyrillic overprint on stamps of Bosnia and Herzegovina for Jugoslavia.
Cyrenaica: Northern Africa on Mediterranean Sea; Province of Libya; 1901: Italian post office opened in Benghazi, 1911-pre: Turkish stamps used, 1912: ceded to Italy, incorporated with Tripolitania to form Libia, 1923, Oct. 24: No. 1, 20 centesimi olive-green/ brown-orange, first stamps were stamps of Italy overprinted “Cirenaica,” 1923-29: own stamps used at same time as stamps of Libya, 1925, June 1: first semipostal stamp issued, 1932, Jan.1: first air mail stamp issued, 1942-48: British stamps overprinted “M.E.F.” (Middle East Forces), see M.E.F., Middle East Forces, 1948, July 1-Dec. 1951: stamps of Britain overprinted “B.M.A. Tripolitania,” 1950, Feb. 6-Dec. 1951: stamps of Britain overprinted “B.A. Tripolitania,” 1950, July 1: first postage due stamp issued, 1951, Jan.16: stamps issued during period of autonomy, 1951, Dec. 24: overprinted “Libya,” stamps of Cyrenaica overprinted Libya for use in Cyrenaica.
Cyrenaica: see Italian Offices in Turkish Empire.
Cyrénaïque: (Fr.) Cyrenaica.
CZ: precedes the European postal code on addresses in the Czech Republic, such as CZ- 15021, Prague. – Czech (Rep.), country code as used by UPU.
Czechoslovakia: formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, central Europe; official name of postal administration: Ceská Posta currency: 100 haleru = 1 koruna 1526-post: under Austrian Hapsburg rule, and Slovakia, part of the Kingdom of Hungary, 1918-pre: used stamps of Austria, 1918: local post operated by scouts in Prague, 1918, Oct.28: No. 1, 3 haleru red-violet, independence declared, Slovakia joins the Republic; first stamp issued in Hradcany Castle designs, 1918, Nov. 14: republic officially established, first postage due stamps issued, 1919: service began to return to normal, 1919: Austrian stamps overprinted as semipostals, 1920: first air mail stamp issued, 1920, May 18: joined the UPU, 1938: stamps of Czechoslovakia overprinted “Wir Sind Frei (Ger.) We Are Free; with a swastika, 1939, July 15: Czech stamps overprinted Böhmen u. Mahren as German protectorate, 1939-44: Böhmen u. Mahren inscription used, 1944-45: territory regained by Russian forces, issued its own stamps again, 1945: Czech stamps reissued, 1945: first official stamp issued, 1948: Peoples Republic established, 1969, Jan. 2: became a federal state, 1989: democratic government established, 1990: renamed the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, 1990. July: Slovakia declared sovereignty and union dissolved, 1993, Jan. 1: separated into Slovakia and the Czech Republic; 1993, March 18: rejoined the UPU; see Bohemia and Moravia and Slovakia.
Czechoslovakia, Siberian Legion (Legion Post): 1919-20: military stamps issued to raise money for Czech troops fighting in Russia.
Czeladz: (Pol.) city produced 37×30 mm framed postpaid local City Post (violet) 1915-1918: local handstamp inscribed “Poczta / Czeladz / date between 2 lines / 5 fen.”
Czermin: city in former Austrian-occupied Poland, local post overprint, 1918-20.
Czworoblok Znaczków: (Pol.) block-of-4 stamps.
Czyl’s Penny Post: United States local post.

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