1: precedes the European postal code on addresses in Belgium, such as B-1000 Brussels.
2: semi-postal, Scott catalogue number prefix to identify stamps other than standard postage.
3: symbol for Banknote Corp. of America, which appears before the plate number on coil stamps printed by the firm.
4: abbreviation used as a postmark from Switzerland to the Kingdom of Sardinia.
5: B-blank; error appearing on GB imperforate penny-red stamps of 1841-54 in which the lower right check letter box received no letter (B-A, plate 77 of die I).
6: with eagle and United States of America: South Carolina Custom House revenue seal.
(Fr.) beau, good to very good, without apparent faults.
8: auction firm abbreviation for block.
9. overprint, British post office at Bangkok, 1882-85.
10. overprint; Colombia airmail sold in Belgium in early 1920s for mail from Belgium to Colombia via SCADTA air line; Belgian stamps were also required; also Colombia consular overprint; 
see: SCADTA.
11. overprint, 1904-1912, Nicaragua province of Zelaya;
12: Belgian stamp inscription, or “B” within an oval, with “Chemins de Fer Spoorwegen” Railway Parcel Post, 1940-44 (overprint), 1949- (inscription);
13: overprint; Belgian stamps to indicate railway parcel;
14: overprint on Straits Settlements stamps for Bangkok, 1882-85, 
see: Bangkok.
15: Antigua, British WW II censor mark for Antigua.
16: Bahia, Brazil; British Postal Agency insufficiently prepaid mark.
17: Berwick or Bristol, British postmark with month and day within the letter.

B (blank): Great Britain 1d red of 1858-64, variety where “B” is blank on bottom right corner.
B (in a box): auction abbreviation for booklet pane.
B4: auction term for block of four.
B 15: written on early 19th century ail means hat the item was carried by a canal packet boat outside of the U.S. Mails before being brought to a U.S. postal facility.
BA: Bosnia and Herzegovina, country code as used by UPU.
B. A.: 1: British Administration overprint on stamps of Great Britain, post World War II, British Offices Abroad, 1950, Jan. 2: Somalia, 1950, Feb. 6-Dec. 1951: Tripolitani, 1950, Feb. 14-Sept. 14, 1952: Eritrea. 3: Baena: occupation of city of Baena, Spain, province of Cordoba, not valid for postage, 1937, July: overprint on stamp by Nationalist and Republican revolutionary forces.
Babatoland: bogus; British Colonial Royal Wedding frames from book Surreal Stamps and Unreal Stickers.
Babenberg, S.S.: Danube Steam Navigation Co. ship; 1890s: service for the upper Danube lines.
BABN: British Bank Note Co., stamp printer for Canada.
Baby: nickname for Spanish King, 1886-1900: early issues of King Alfonso XIII.
Baby Zepp: 50¢ US airmail issue as opposed to higher values of regular US Zepp issues.
Baccarat: local provisional, France, 1944.
Bache, Richard: postmaster general of the Continental Post Office, 1776: during period when Benjamin Franklin traveled to France.
Back: as opposed to the front of a philatelic object; Ruckseite (Ger.), Dos (Fr.), Verso (It.), Dorso (Sp.).
Background, design: the lines, shading or other solid feature against which a design is placed.
Background, inverted: the background is inverted compared to the stamp design.
Backing: the process of filling the shell with molten metal to form a printing plate.
Backing paper: liner on self-adhesive coil stamps that stamps are affixed to.
Back inscription: printing on the back of a stamp; usually describing scene on the front of the stamp.
Back numbers: numbers appearing on the back of the liner release paper of U.S. coil stamps.
Back of an envelope: very important for possible philatelic markings.
Back-of-the-book (BOB): refers to a range of items usually listed in the back of specialized stamp catalogs; postage dues, revenues, postal saving stamps, etc.
Backprint: an “overprint” applied to the back of a stamp.
Backstamp: postmark applied on back of incoming mail to show date and time of receipt at the receiving post office; in Britain, a plain diamond shape backstamp for statistical purposes. Ruckseitigerstemple (Ger.), Cachet au Dos (Fr.), Annulato Verso (It.), Marca Postal al Dorso (Sp.).
Bacon, Joshua Butters: founder of Perkins Bacon and Co., printer of early postage stamps.
Bacon, Sir Edward Denny: curator of King George V’s collection, 1913-38.
Bácska: (Hung.) see Megszállas, Bánát-Bácska a Szerb és a Román Helycsere Között.
Bactria Margiana Archaeology Complex (BMAC): an ancient civilization reported in 2001 that used a unique form of script around 2300 BC.
Båd: (Dan.) boat.
Badajoz: local, Spanish civil war, Nationalist and Republican forces, 1936-38.
Badakhshan: local cinderella, Russian, 1998?
Badalona: local, Spanish civil war, Republican forces.
Bade: (Fr.) Baden.
Både: (Nor.) both.
Baden: German State; located in southwestern Germany; currency: 60 kreuzer = 1 gulden; stamps of this country can be found in these catalogs: Michel, Scott, Stamps of the Grand Duchy of Baden, Stanley Gibbons, Yvert & Tellier; 1806: first postal markings known when created as a Grand Duchy by Napoleon, 1850, April: postal union formed between Prussia and Austria with Baden included, 1851, May 1: No.1, 1 kreuzer dark buff; first stamps with Baden inscription, 1851-67: used five concentric circles as cancel, 1862: rural delivery, postage due stamp with “Land-Post” inscription issued, 1870: joined the German Empire, 1872, Jan.1: stamps of the German Confederation without inscription, 1905: six official stamps released by Germany in for use in Baden, 1945-46: Zone Francaise inscription, French Occupation issue, 1947: first semipostal stamp issued, French occupation.
Baden, forged issue: 1862, postage due, Scott LJ1-LJ3.
Baden Republic 16: local official, Germany, 1905.
Bad Nauheim: local, Germany, 1945-48.
Bad. Oe. C: (Ger.) term signifying a reduced postal rate between Austria and Baden.
Badonviller: local provisional, French, 1944.
Bad Saarow: local, Germany, 1945-48.
Bad Suderode: local, Germany, 1918-23.
B.A.E.: British Army, Egypt, Aug. 1882-Oct. 1882.
B A E C: Bavarian Aero Club semi-official flight label used with regular postage; 1912-13: sold by state post office in Munich and Nuremberg.
B. A. Eritrea: overprint, British Africa Eritrea; Middle East Forces, British Offices Abroad for Offices in Africa, 1950, Feb. 6-Sept. 14, 1952: overprint on stamps of Great Britain.
Baeza: (Sp.) city in Spain, two-ringed postmark, 1842: named for Juan Baeza, administrator of the Post Office, 1937: local, Spanish civil war, Republican forces, 1937.
Bagages Reisgoed: (Fr./Flem.) overprint on stamps of Belgium, baggage parcel post revenue.
Bagdad: local transit label, 1935.
Bagel: printers of German stamps after WW II.
Baghdad, Bagdad: city of Iraq, part of Turkish Empire from 1638-1918; 1863- : Turkish post office operated, 1868-1914: Indian post offices operated, 1917, Sept.: “Baghdad in British Occupation” overprint on stamps of Turkey.
Bagley & Dunham: private die match proprietary stamps.
Bagside: (Dan.) reverse side.
Baha 1943: surcharge; 1943: on Philippine stamps, Japanese occupation.
Bahai: now Salvador, Brazil.
Bahama Inseln: (Ger.) Bahamas.
Bahamaøerne: (Dan.) Bahama Islands.
Bahamas: island group of British West Indies, British Commonwealth Independent State; currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling; 20 shillings = 1 pound, 100 cents = 1 dollar (1966), 1760s: letters known, 1763: became a British colony, 1804: Bahamas straight line cancel used, 1841: “Crown Paid” handstamp initiated by Royal Mail Line, 1858-59, Apr.: stamps of Great Britain used, 1859, June 10: “Interinsular Postage” inter-island mail inscription for first stamps issued since external mails were under control of London until May 1860, 1860: No.1, 1 penny dull lake; first stamp, 1860, May: “Interinsular Postage” inscription removed from stamps, 1863: Bahamas inscription used, 1915-16: Bahamas stamps sold in Canada, 1916: first special delivery stamp, 1917, May 18: first semipostal stamp, 1918, Feb. 21: first War Tax stamp issued, 1964, Jan. 7: internal self-government, 1973, July 10: independence, 1974, April 24: joined UPU. 1983, Oct. 13: first air mail stamp issued.
Bahamas, forged issue: 1863-65, Queen Victoria, Sc 15, 19.
Bahawalpur: former Indian state, now part of Pakistan; 1945, Jan. 1: first official stamps issued, 1947, Dec. 1: declared independence from India, joined Pakistan, 1947, Dec. 1: No.1, ½ anna bright carmine rose/black; first stamps valid within Bahawalpur, 1948-pre: State of India, stamps of India used only valid within Bahawalpur, 1948, Apr. 1-Oct. 10, 1949: stamps valid only for internal use, 1950: stamps of Pakistan used.
Bahamas: Long Island, world’s longest stamp, 70mm; unissued Great Britain cinderella by David Horry, 2001.
Bahia: (Sp.) now Goliath, Texas.
Bahn: (Ger.) railway, train.
Bahnhof: railway station.
Bahnhofpostamt: railway station post office.
Bahnhofspostexpedition: (Ger.) former name for railway station post office.
Bahnhofsstempel: (Ger.) railway station cancel.
Bahnpost: (Ger.) railroad mail.
Bahnpostamt (BPA): (Ger.) railway post office postmark.
Bahnpoststempel: (Ger.) railroad post cancel.
Bahnpostwagon: (Ger.) mobile mail railcar.
Bahrain: independent sheikdom in the Persian Gulf; currency:12 pies = 1 anna; 16 annas= 1 rupee; 100 naye paise = 1 rupee (1957),1,000 fils = 1 dinar (1966) 1861-1971: British Protectorate, 1883, Aug. 1-1933: stamps of India used, distinguishable by named date stamps, 1933, Aug. 10: No.1, 3 pies gray; stamps of India overprinted “BAHRAIN,” 1948, April 1: British postal agency opened, stamps of Great Britain overprinted “BAHRAIN,” 1953: first stamps for internal use only, 1960: first stamps inscribed Bahrain, 1965, Dec. 31: British postal agency closed, 1966, Jan. 1: Bahrain stamps issued, 1971, Aug. 15: became independent, 1971, Oct. 2: State of Bahrain inscription, 1073, Oct.21: War Tax stamp issued, 1973, Dec. 21: joined the UPU.
Baijeri: (Fin.) Bavaria.
Baikal: local, Russian overprint, 1920.
Bailen: local, Spanish civil war, Republican forces, 1937.
Bailey & Cherington’s Express: local parcel company serviced Ohio, used a label, year unknown.
Bailey Mail: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Bailiwick of Guernsey: Channel Islands, Guernsey, Great Britain.
Bairuth: Lebanon, Egypt, see: Interpostal seals, Overseas Offices, 1868-82.
Baja California: “Distrito sur de la Baja Cal” (Sp.) A district in Northern Mexico which issued its own set of four stamps during the revolution, 1914.
Bajar Porto: inscription on Indonesia stamps for Postage Due.
Baja, S.S.: Danube Steam Navigation Company steamship; 1850s for the upper Danube lines.
Bajo: (Sp.) under, below, low or lower.
Bajos: (Sp.) part of address indicting ground floor.
Baked, Alaska: joke precancel on U.S. stamps.
Baker & Penniman’s Express: local parcel firm serviced Boston & New York Central Railroad, Norwich & Worchester Railroad; 1854-58.
Baker’s City Express Post: U.S. local post, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1849.
Bakhmut: (now Artemovsk) Russian town in Yekaterinoslat Oblast (now Ukraine) ca. 45 miles N of Donetsk; issued local Rural Post stamps (1901); see Zemstvo.
Baksidan: (Swed.) reverse (side).
Bakker Express: local stamps by F. M. Bakker, South Africa; 1887: for mail to Mylstroom, Pretoria, Marabstad and part of Transvaal.
Bakshi: India States term for paymaster, treasurer.
Baku: overprint; 1922-24: on stamps of the Transcausasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, 1993: Azerbaijan, local overprint.
Baky: Azerbaijan, Province of Baku.
Balek, Balex: overprint on Russian stamp, German occupation; 1941-42: Great Alexandrovka.
Balashof: (now Balashov) Russian town in Saratof (now Saratov) Oblast ca. 110 miles W of the city of Saratov; issued local Rural Post stamps (1876-1880); see Zemstvo.
Balay: French colonial stamp issue of 1906-12 with portrait of Dr. N. Eugene Balay.
Balbo Issue: Gen. Italo Balbo; 1933, May 20: Italian issue commemorating mass transatlantic air flight; Rome, Italy to Chicago, USA., overprints exist, including colonies.
Balcony Falls, Va. Paid 10 C.S.: see: Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Baldonie: bogus.
Baldwin’s Express: local private post, serviced Southern Louisiana, used a corner card; 1865.
Baldwin’s Express-NJ: local private parcel post, serviced Newark, N.J. and New York City; used labels; 1848.
Baldwin’s Railway Postage: bogus Canadian local post.
Bale: specialized Catalog of Israel Postage Stamps.
Baleares: local, Spanish civil war, Nationalist forces, 1937-38.
Balickova posta: (Czech.) parcel post.
Balija: (Sp.) postman’s bag.
Balík: (Czech.) parcel, package.
Balíková Pripousteci Známka: (Czech.) License stamp (coupon) for parcels.
Balkan: bogus issue, not valid for postage.
Balken: (Ger.) bar used to cancel stamps.
Balken-abstand: (Ger.) distance between cancel bars.
Balkenförmiger phosphor: (Ger.) phosphor bars.
Balkenlänge: (Ger.) length of bars.
Balkennummernstempel: bars and numeral cancel.
Balkenstempel: (Ger.): barred cancel (with stripes).
Balliana: Egypt, see: Interpostal seals, 1879-1882.
Ballon Monté: 1870-71: inscription for letters via piloted balloon during the Siege of Paris.
Ballon Non-Monté: 1870-71: inscription for letters dispatched by non-piloted balloon.
Ballonpost: (Ger.) balloon mail.
Ballons (poste par): (Fr.) balloon post.
Balloon flight: flight made by a balloon.
Balloon mail: first recorded use of letters carried by balloon was in 1784 by Vincent Lunardi at Northaw Common, Hertfordshire, England.
Balloon mail, official: John Wise carried mail in the balloon Jupiter on Aug. 17, 1859 between Lafayette and Crawfordsville, Indiana.
Balloon Postage, buffalo: United States semi-official airmail stamp; 1877, June 18: Balloon flight from Nashville to Gallatin, Tenn., balloon named Buffalo.
Ballycastle Railway: Ireland, local post.
Balonova posta: (Czech.) balloon mail.
Balpex: Baltimore Philatelic Society.
Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
Balticum: collector term for Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
Baltikum: (Dan., Nor., Swed.) the Baltic States ( Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania).
Baltisk: (Nor.) Baltic.
Baltiske Lande: (Dan., Nor. Swed.) the Baltic States ( Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania).
Baltimore: Maryland, James M. Buchanan, postmaster; 1845-46: postmaster’s stamps and prepaid envelopes, 1850-57: semi-official local carriers’ stamps.
Baltimore & Ohio Express Co.: railroad express company, serviced Baltimore & Ohio system; used stamp booklets; c1886.
Baltische staaten: (Ger.) Baltic states.
Bamber & Co.’s Express: local express serviced Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, Calif; used labels; late 1850s.
Bamberg: local, Germany, 1896-1900.
Bamra: India (Native) Feudatory State; 1888-1894: stamps for internal use only, 1894: stamps of India used.
Banana Republic: bogus advertising fantasy created by company of same name.
Banana, Republica de: bogus Donald Evans issue, central Europe.
Bánát: (Hung.) see Megszállas, Bánát-Bácska a Szerb és a Román Helycsere Között. Bancroft’s City Express: bogus Canadian local post.
Bancroft’s Express: local parcel express serviced Boston, North Cambridge and Somerville, Mass.; used a label; c1880s.
Band: 1. (Ger.) volume (book). 2. (Swed.) coil (stamp).
Banda: (Sp.) strip (of stamps).
Bandaufdruck: (Ger.) ribbon type overprint as used on Germany posthorn issue of 1948.
B and C: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
B & D: Blau & Deighton: Graf Zeppelin Orient Flight.
Bande: (Fr.) strip of two or more imperforate stamps.
Bande de roulette: (Fr.) coil strip.
Bandelette: (Fr.) “Do not Deliver on Sunday” label; 1893-1914: attached by perforation to Belgian stamps, when removed, sender indicates Sunday delivery desired, also known as Dominical label or tablet, Sunday delivery labels.
Bande pour journaux: (Fr.) wrapper.
Bandera:(Sp.) 1: national colors of the country on banner or flag; 2: flag, as a theme or topic.
Banderole: (Fr.) tab used as a wine tax paid label in Denmark, ended Oct. 1, 2001.
B & ETPO: Bristol & Exeter Traveling Post Office.
Bandiera: (It.) flag, as a theme or topic.
Bandjermasin: local overprint, Japanese occupation, Naval Control Area, 1942-45.
B & K: Berthold & Kummer: Handbook of Zeppelin Letters, Postal Cards, and Stamps.
B & L HR/West: Buffalo and Lake Huron Railway.
Bandmärke(n)(Swed.) coil stamp(s).
B & N (Brockert & Newton): private die match proprietary stamps.
Bando: 1: (Sp.) postal announcement proclamation or official notice placed on walls or bulletin boards; 2: (Ger.) German World War I prisoner of war camp in Japan, 1918.
B & O (Baltimore & Ohio Telegraph Companies): U.S. telegraph stamps issued for use on own firm’s telegrams, 1885-87.
Band of Good Hope: bogus based on stationery of Cape of Good Hope.
Band Overprint: continuous overprint of coil and posthorn in center of stamp issue of Germany, 1948.
Band phosphorescente: (Fr.) phosphor band.
B & S Investigations: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Bandstempel: (Ger.) machine or hand rolled cancel.
Band tagging: continuous band of tagging that extends across a pane of stamps.
Bane: (Nor., slang) railroad, railway; railroad line, railway line; see Jernbane, jernbanelinie.
Baneres: local, Spanish civil war, Republican forces, 1937.
Banepost: (Nor., slang) railroad post (mail), railway post (mail); see Jernbanepost.
Banghazi: formerly Bengasi, Libya.
Bangka & Billiton: local overprint, Sumatra, Japanese occupation, 1942-45.
Bangkok: city in Siam, now capital of Thailand; currency:100 cents = 1 dollar 1855-July 1, 1885: stamps of Great Britain, 1882-July 1: No.1, 2 cent brown; stamps of Straits Settlements overprinted “B” for use at the British post office, 1885, July 1: Siam joined the UPU and only stamps of Siam used.
Bangladesh: southern, central Asia, India, then East Pakistan, now independent; currency: 100 paisas = 1 rupee, 100 poishas = 1 taka 1947: British India partition, Moslem portion made up East Pakistan, 1971, Mar. 26-Apr. 30, 1973: stamps of Pakistan handstamped for use in Bangladesh, 1971, July 29: No.1, 10 paisas red, dark purple and lt. blue; “Bangla Desh” inscription. 1973: first official stamp issued. 1973, Feb. 7: joined the UPU.
Bangsa Moro: bogus, Philippines, Muslim controlled area, handstamp used.
Bani: currency unit in Moldova.
Banja Luka: overprint on two Yugoslavian stamps by local partisans, northern Bosnia; WW II.
Banjul: formerly Bathurst, The Gambia.
Bank: mechanical meters have value characters called a bank, on the outer rim of wheels that are rotated to show the correct postage.
Bank & Insurance City Post: inscription on locals by Hussey’s Post, New York.
Bank Holiday Monday Island: unissued Great Britain cinderella by David Horry, 2001.
Bank mixture: assortment of stamps, usually on paper, collected from the incoming mail of financial institutions.
Bank note: (Eng.) bill (money).
Bank Note cancels: postmarks on bank note issues began the system of standardization of cancellations, 1870-79.
Bank Note issues: stamps produced by three bank note firms; 1870, April: National Bank Note Company, 1873, May 1: Continental Bank Note Company, 1879, Feb. 4: American Bank Note Company.
Bank Note Stamps: Latvia used paper for stamps in 1919-21, originally designed for bank notes, bank notes were Bermondt (German) and Bolshevik (Russian) five ruble notes.
Bank notices: Importers and Traders National Bank, 1874-80, local stamps in the form of postal cards, no postmarks or cancellations were used.
Banner: aka scroll, contains the country of issue or identifies the subject of the vignette.
Bannockburn: local, Great Britain strike, Bannockburn Delivery, 1971.
Bannock City Pony Express: operated by Davis, Patterson & Co. to connect with Overland Mail Coach at Salt Lake City, 1863.
Banos de la Encina: local, Spanish civil war, Republican forces, 1937.
Banque (de France): (Fr.) Bank of France printings, proofs or reprints.
Bantams: nickname given to the miniature war-tax stamps of South Africa during World War II, term for SWA overprint: see: S W A.
Bantayan Islands: bogus, Philippine island northeast of Cebu.
Banyoltes: local, Spanish civil war, Republican forces, 1937.
B.A.O.R.: British Army on the Rhine.
B. A. P. O.: British Army Post Office.
Bar: 1: lines used for canceling stamp; 2: part of surcharge which obliterates original value.
BAR: letter-code within cds (q.v.) assigned to Barrouallie, St. Vincent, BWI (1873-1884), 1871 pop. 1,219.
Baranja: bogus, Jugoslavia stamps overprinted for Bosnian Republic.
Baranow: city in former Austrian-occupied Poland, local post overprint, 1918-20.
Baranya: county in S Hungary (cap. Pécs) occupied by Serbian forces in 1919; occupation stamps issued known as “1st” and “2nd-Barancy Issues.”
Barawe: Somalia inscription.
Barb: Barbados bisected and surcharged stamp.
Barbabar: bogus; British Colonial Royal Wedding frames from book Surreal Stamps and unreal Stickers.
Barbade: (Fr.) Barbados.
Barbados: West Indies islands; official name of postal administration: Barbados Postal Service (BPS). currency: 4 farthings = 1 penny, 12 pence = 1 shilling, 20 shillings = 1 pound, 100 cents = 1 dollar (1950) 1628-1966: British colony, 1663: Great Britain Imperial Post Office established a postal agency, 1760s: first postal marking appeared, 1851: Island Post office authorized, 1852, April 17: No.1, ½ penny deep green; first stamps issued, 1897: first commemorative stamp issued, 1907, Jan. 25: first semipostal stamp issued 1917: first War Tax stamp issued 1934: first postage due stamp, 1966, Nov. 30: became independent state within British Commonwealth, 1966, Dec. 2: first stamps after independence, 1967, Nov. 11: joined the UPU.
Barbados: inscription, Attack of the Giant Jellyfish; unissued Great Britain cinderella by David Horry, 2001.
Barbados: inscription, Stamford Raffles as Nelson unissued Great Britain cinderella by David Horry, 2001.
Barbar: Sudan, see: Interpostal Seals, 1872-1882.
Barbara: 1: Somaliland Protectorate, see: Interpostal seals, 1882; 2: local, Spanish civil war, Republican forces, 1937.
Barber & Peckham: private die match proprietary stamps.
Barberia: overprint on stamps of Italy for Italian post offices in Tripoli.
Barber, Geo. & O.C.: private die match proprietary stamps.
Barber Match Co.: private die match proprietary stamps.
Barbero covers: US official covers flown on a Regulus missile, launched from USS Barbero submarine June 8, 1959; first official US Missile Mail.
Barber pole: nickname for cover with border of red and blue parallelograms.
Barbuda: island in the West Indies; currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling, 100 cents = 1 EC dollar 1862: used stamps of Antigua, 1922, July 13: No.1, ½ penny green; overprint on stamps of Antigua and Leeward Islands, 1968: first stamps, inscribed Barbuda, see Antigua, 1982, June 28: first semipostal stamp.
Barbuda mail: overprint on stamps of Antigua.
Barca: overprint used on stamps of Mexico for this district during 1856-1883.
Bar cancel: cancellation consisting of bars in various configurations.
Barcelona: 1:Spain,1929-53: local postal tax issue; 2: local, Spanish civil war, Republican,1937.
Barcelona Issue: stamp of Spain overprinted “Republica” in Barcelona, 1931.
Barcentrum: bogus, Donald Evans issue for Netherlands.
Barclay’s Bank D.C.O.: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Bar code: pattern of straight lines of varying heights and thickness that permits electronic equipment to read the address.
Barcode sorter: computerized machine that sorts letter-size mail by using a barcode reader to interpret the imprinted barcode.
Barcode sticker: a gummed sticker applied to mail by the USPS indicting exact delivery address.
Bardsey: island off coast of Wales; Great Britain local carriage label.
Barefoot: British based catalog of British and European revenues.
Barfrankierung: (Ger.) pre-payment of postage in cash when stamps were unavailable.
Barfreimachungsstempel: (Ger.) printed matter franking per UPU 1920, to be in red color and include words “Franco” and “Gebühr bezahlt.”
Barfreimachung: (Ger.) printed matter cancel.
Barham Pile Cure Co.: inscription on Medicine stamp; see Private die proprietary stamps.
Barker’s City Post: local handstamp, Boston, Mass., 1853.
Barna: (Hung.) brown (color).
Bármely címlet: (Hung.) any denomination (of postage stamp).
 (Hung.) brown (color).
Barnard, Joseph O.:
 Mauritius engraver of the “Post Office” 1d and 2d stamp designs of 1847.
Barnard’s Caribou Express: local post; British Columbia, 1858: inscribed “Paid” and “Collect.”
Barnard’s City Letter Express: U.S. local post, Boston, Mass., 1845.
Barnard’s Pirate P.S.: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Barnás: (Hung.) brownish (color).
Barnásibolya: (Hung.) brown(ish)-violet (color).
Barnáslila: (Hung.) bown(ish)-lilac (color).
Barnássárga: (Hung.) brown(ish)-yellow, buff (color).
Barnásszürke: (Hung.) brown(ish)-grey, taupe (color).
Barnászöld: (Hung.) brown(ish)-olive green, olive-drab (color).
Bármely címlet: (Hung.)any denomination (of postage stamp).
Barna: (Hung.)brown (color).
Barnás: (Hung.)brownish (color).
Barnásibolya: (Hung.)brown(ish)-violet (color).
Barnáslila: (Hung.)bown(ish)-lilac (color).
Barnássárga: (Hung.)brown(ish)-yellow, buff (color).
Barnásszürke: (Hung.)brown(ish)-grey, taupe (color).
Barnászöld: (Hung.)brown(ish)-olive green, olive-drab (color).
Barnes, Demas: inscription on Medicine stamp; see Private die proprietary stamps.
Barnes, D. S.: inscription on Medicine stamp; see Private die proprietary stamps.
Barnesville: U.S. local, “F.B.S.” Friend’s Boarding School, 1877-84.
Barnwell C.(Court) H. (House) S.C. 5 Paid: see: Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Baroda: now Vadodara, India.
Baronial envelopes: large square shaped envelope, two sizes, introduced in post offices in 1884, discontinued 1920.
Bar precancels: earliest form of precancels, consisting of bars, lines, etc., any form that does not include a readable name.
Barques: (Fr.) boats; French colony revenue inscription.
Barquitos: (Sp.) term for the first issue of Argentina with design of small barks (ships).
Barrado: (Sp.) stamp remainders overprinted with black bars during 1854-82 to deface the design.
Barranquilla: with “Franqueo Particular” Colombia local post, 1882.
Barras: (Sp.) lines or bars used for canceling stamp remainders.
Barré: (Fr.) stamps overprinted with black bars or rules to deface the design.
Barred: stamps overprinted with black bars or rules to deface the design.
Barred cancel: striped cancel, used as a precancel device or an obliteration to void features of the stamp portrait, as when a king is overthrown.
Barre, Desire Albert:
 b.1818-73, French engraver of stamps, son of Jean Barre; 1863-pre: 1863: eagle design of the French colonial issue, 1863-70: French stamp issues, Greece Hermes design, Persia first issues.
Barred diamond: used in Toronto, 1858, complicated design to prevent washing of stamp for reuse.
Barred oval:
 a cancel or killer in which the bars increase and then decrease in size to form an oval pattern; British Commonwealth countries use this a lot.
Barre, Jean Jacques:
 b. 1793: engraver for the Paris Mint, 1849-60.
Barrel duplex: cancel with barrel-shaped portion in the center.
Barr’s Penny Dispatch: U.S. local post, Lancaster, Pa., 1855.
Barrel mail: Galapagos Islands mail container for deposit of mail from passing ships.
Barrington’s P.S.: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Barr’s Penny Dispatch: Lancaster, Pa. local letter service by Elias Barr.
Barr, T. H. & Co.: U.S. private die medicine proprietary stamp.
Barry Dock & Railways: Wales local post.
Barry Postal Supply Co.: manufacturer of cancelling machines used from the 1890s – 1910s.
Barry Railway: Wales local post.
Barry Rapid Canceling Machine: used on U.S. stamps, patented 1897 and 1904.
Barry’s: inscription on Medicine stamp; see Private die proprietary stamps.
E. N. Barry’s Despatch Post: local handstamp, New York, N.Y., 1852.
Bars: printed horizontal dashes used by electric eye machines to center perforations in the stamp manufacturing process.
Barsinghausen: local, Germany, 1945-48.
Bar tagging: phosphorescent tagging where a bar of taggant is applied to the stamps.
Barton Press: subcontractor to Banknote Corp. of America, printed the 1994 Wonders of the Sea U.S. stamps.
Barva: (Czech.) color.
Barwani: India Feudatory State; 1921, April: issued local use stamps, 1948, July 1: separate stamps discontinued, replaced by stamps of the Republic of India.
Barzahlung: (Ger.) cash payment.
Basal shift: Term used for early British stamps meaning a double lower frame or partial impression on the lower part of the stamp.
Base Atlantica: overprint on Italian stamps; 1943-44: for use of military submarine personnel stationed in Bordeaux France.
Base Depot/ (date)/ Siberia: Canadian Forces in Siberia.
Basel: city, Switzerland Canton; 1845, July 1-Apr. 5, 1850: issued own stamp issues, 1850: replaced by Swiss federal issues, 1913: local airmail.
Basel dove: 1845: Swiss Canton’s local issue.
Base plate: stamps put on these varying size plates ready for perforating.
Base sheet: heavy paper pulled from original or intermediate plate or stone.
Bashahr: India Feudatory State of Bussahir.
Bashkiria: local, cinderella, Russian, 1996?
Bashkortostan: illegal labels, purporting to be stamps, as per Jan. 14, 2002, Russian Federation report to the UPU; not valid for postage.
Basic presort: bulk mail presorted to first three digits of USA Zip code, bundled prior to mailing.
Basic stamp: stamp design before any overprint or surcharges have been added.
Basle: see Basel.
B. A. Somalia: overprint, British Africa Somalia; Middle East Forces, British Offices Abroad for Offices in Africa, 1950, Jan. 2-1952: overprint on stamps of Great Britain.
Bassa Vedasca: local, Italian liberation, Allied occupation, 1944.
Basso: 1: printing plate formed through baths for strengthening, 2: (It.) bottom, lowest side.
Basted mills paper: stamps of New Zealand used paper made by the Basted Paper Company, a thin hard paper, with a close weave, and watermarked with double-lined “NZ” and a star.
Basutoland: South Africa, British protectorate, overprint; currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling, 100 cents = 1 rand (1961) 1871: annexed to Cape Colony, 1871-1910: stamps of Cape of Good Hope, identified by date stamp or Cape numeral cancels, 1883: control transferred to British crown, 1910-1933: stamps of Union of South Africa, 1933, Dec. 1: No.1, ½ penny emerald; first postage due stamp issued, 1933, Dec. 1: first inscribed stamps issued, 1934: official stamp issued, 1945, Dec.3: “Basutoland” overprint on stamps of South Africa, 1966, Oct. 4: became independent state of Lesotho, 1966, Oct. 31: all Basutoland stamps withdrawn.
Basutoland: N’Chacadinga Bridge which was never built, perfin ‘specimen” unissued Great Britain cinderella by David Horry, 2001.
Basutuföld: (Hung.) Basutoland.
B.A.T.: (abbr.) British Antarctic Territories.
Båt: (Nor.) boat.
Bata: (Sp.) overprint of capital of Rio Muni (Spanish Guinea); 1901: on issue of Fernando Poo.
Bataan & Corregidor: overprint, Philippines, Japanese Occupation, 1942.
Bataan War Prisoners Relief: seal issued by private group to raise funds, 1944-45.
Batallon: (Sp.) battalion.
Batavia: Netherlands Indies, postage due; now Jakarta, Indonesia.
Batchelder’s Express: local private baggage express co., serviced stations along Eastern Railroad and the Maine Central Railroad, c1880s, used a label.
Batchlor’s Service: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Batea: local, Spanish civil war, Republican forces, 1937.
Bateke: bogus for Equatorial Africa, Portuguese territory.
Batekeland: bogus, 1896.
Batello Postale: (It.) mail boat.
Bates & Co.: local handstamp, New Bedford, Mass. 1845.
Bates Personal Service: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Bathtubbing: term formerly used by precancel collectors to wash gum off stamps.
Bathurst: now Banjul, The Gambia.
Bati Almanya: (Turk.) West Germany.
Batoeradja: local overprint, Sumatra, Japanese occupation, 1942-45.
Batonné: (Fr.) ruled, used in philately as having a watermark of parallel lines about a cm apart.
Batonne paper: lines, whether wove or laid, are spaced far apart.
Baton Rouge: Louisiana, a Confederate “Postmasters” issue of 1861.
Baton Rouge, La. P.O. Paid 2, 5: see: Confederate Postmaster’s Provisionals.
Batoum: (Fr.) Batum.
B. A. Tripolitania: overprint, British Africa Tripolitania; Middle East Forces, British Offices Abroad for Offices in Africa, 1950, Feb. 6-Sept. 14, 1952: stamps of Great Britain overprint. 1950, Feb. 6-Dec. 1951: valid only in Tripolitania.
Batta: India States term for allowance for soldiers of public servants on active duty.
Battle of Maiwand:
 cinderella issued by the Baker Street Irregulars for 100 th anniversary of the battle; July 27, 1980.
Battleship revenue: name is from stamp design that illustrates the U.S. ship, Maine, 1898: series of documentary and proprietary stamps.
Battleship revenue plates: design of 1898 were printed on plates of 216 subjects, Internal Revenue objected because of the difficulty of fractional amounts, BEP returned to 200-plate subject.
Battleships: U.S. documentary and proprietary revenue stamps showing Maine, 1898.
Batum: Georgia, Russia port city on Black Sea; currency: 100 kopecks = 1 ruble 1863-64: used stamps of Russia, 1865-77: used stamps of Russian Levant, 1878: annexed by Russia from Turkey, 1878-1918: used stamps of Russia, WW I: occupied by Germans and Turks, 1918, Dec.16- July 7, 1920: “British Occupation” overprint on Russian stamps, 1919: No. 1, 5 kopecks green; used overprint types of Georgia, 1920, July 14: returned to Georgia, 1921: became autonomous republic of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic,1923: Russian stamps used, 1990: stamps of Georgia used, 1994: local post “stamps” issued for Azerbaijan, but have not seen postal use.
Batum, forged issues: 1919 Aloe Tree, (kopeck) Scott 1-3, Scott 4-6 (ruble).
Batumi Post: illegal issue and not valid for postage, UPU letter of Aug. 27, 1997.
Bau., Baux.: (Fr.) Bureaux, French offices (abroad).
Bauer & Beudel: private die match proprietary stamps.
Bautenserie: (Ger.) building series of German stamps; popular due to many varieties in issue.
B. a. V.: (Fr.) “Bateau a Vapeur” steamship postmark.
Bavaria: German State; located in southern Germany; currency: 60 kreuzer = 1 gulden, 100 pfenning = 1 mark (1874) 1849, Nov.1: No.1, 1 kreuzer black, stamps first issued, member German Confederation, 1850: used “mill wheel” as cancel, 1856: used concentric dashes as cancel, 1862: first postage due stamp issued,1870: became part of the German Empire, 1871-1918: continued use of its own stamps, issued first stamps in the world by the photogravure process depicting King Ludwig III, 1908: first official stamp issued, with “E” overprint for “Eisenbahn” railway official use, 1911: first air mail stamps issued, 1919: “Volksstaat” overprint on stamps of Bavaria, 1919, May 17: ” Freistaat Bayern,” Free State of Bavaria overprint on stamps of Bavaria, 1919: first semipostal stamp issued, 1920, Feb.14: unoverprinted issue released, 1920, March 31: postal rights transferred to Reichpost, 1920, April 1: “Deutsches Reich” overprint on Bavaria officials, 1920, April 6: “Deutsches Reich” overprint on stamps of Germany, valid in Germany, 1920, June 30: Bavarian stamps no longer valid.
Bavaria: local, displaced persons camp, 1946.
Bavaria Railway: German railway that printed stamps for mail carried on their trains to post offices.
Baviera: (Sp.) Bavaria.
Bavicre: (Fr.) Bavaria.
Bavure: (Fr.) rough or smudged edge (printing impression).
Bayay Porto: Indonesia, postage due.
Bayern: (Ger., Nor.) inscription used on stamps of Bavaria, 1849-1920.
Bayer. Post Taxe: (Ger.) Bavaria postage due.
Bayer. Staatseisenbahn: (Ger.) Bavaria railway issue.
Bayley, C.J.: Governor of Bahamas, made sketch of proposed design of 1859 1d stamp.
Bayonne City Dispatch: U.S. local post, Bayonne City, N.J., 1883.
Bayr: (Ger.) inscription used on stamps of Bavaria, 1849-1920.
Bayreuth-Leopoldkaserne: local, Displaced Persons Camp, 1948.
Bayrisch: (Ger.) Bavarian.
Baxa: (Sp.) early form of Baja.
Baza: local, Spanish civil war, Republican forces, 1937.
Bazen, X.: U.S. private die perfumery proprietary stamp.
BB: 1. Barbados, country code as used by UPU. 2. British censor marking for St Kitts Nevis.
B B M: USPS term for bulk business mail.
BC: British Consulate, Cadiz, 1830-1848.
B. C.: 1: Before Christ, used following year dates; see: A.D.; 2: British Columbia, or British Colonies, or British Commonwealth; 3: (Fr.) bien centré, well centered.
B. C. A. : 1: overprint on stamps of Rhodesia for British Central Africa; 1891-95:; see British Central Africa. 2: see Banknote Corporation of America.
BCC: British Civil Censorship; A/Austria; G/Germany; LO/Liaison Officer.
B. C. G.: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (Anti-Tuberculosis League) inscription on postal tax issue of Dominican Republic.
B. C. M. : overprint for Madagascar; 1884-86: British Consular Mail.
B. C. O. F. JAPAN 1946: overprint on Australian stamps;British Commonwealth Occupation Forces,1946-1947 Australian forces stationed in Japan (post WW II).
B C P S G: British Caribbean Philatelic Study Group, USA.
B C S: Bermuda Collectors Society, USA.
BD: 1: auction abbreviation for bird topic; 2: Bangladesh, country code as used by UPU.
B. D.: Barracks Department, South Australia official overprint, 1868-74.
BDE HQPO: Australian Brigade Headquarters Post Office.
BDPh: (Ger.) see: Bund Deutscher Philatelisten.
B. Dpto. Zelaya: overprint to prevent currency manipulation; Nicaragua, Province of Zelaya.
Be., B: (Fr.) abbreviation for bande, strip, wrapper.
BE: Belgium, country code as used by UPU.
B. E. A.: British East Africa.
BEA Airway Letter Service: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Beacon stamp: the U.S. 5¢ Beacon airmail stamps of 1928.
Beaconsfield Post: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Beaded oval: term applied to group of stamps issued for Colony of Victoria, 1860-63.
Beamte(r): (Ger.) official.
Bear’s Grease Republic: bogus, country,1977 “Fun and Fact Calendar” by Erbe Publications.
Bear stamps: refers to St. Louis Provisional, St. Louis Bears.
Beau: (Fr.) fine, a state of excellence.
Beaufort house essays: first stamp designs in British competition by Charles Whiting, 1840.
B. eau Fr. De Bale: (Fr.) postmark; French Post office, Basel, Switzerland.
Beaulieu Post: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Beaumont: Texas city, one of the Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals of 1861.
Beaumont, Texas Paid 10 cents: see: Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Beaux: (Fr.) bureau, post offices.
Beaver: first Canadian stamps issued in1851, first stamp to feature an animal, the beaver.
Bebeh: Egypt, see: Interpostal seals, 1879-84.
Bechuanaland: aka British Bechuanaland, former British Crown Colony.
Bechuanaland, Bechuanaland Protectorate: Southern Africa; currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling, 20 shillings = 1 pound, 100 cents = 1 rand (1961) 1885, Sep. 30: Crown Colony of British Bechuanaland established, a larger area north of the Colony named British Protectorate named at the same time, stamps of Cape of Good Hope overprinted “British Bechuanaland,” 1885-86: mail was carried by runner or border police, 1886: No.1, 4 pence blue, 1887, Nov. 1: stamp of Great Britain overprinted “British Bechuanaland,” 1888, Aug. 7: overprint “Protectorate” on stamps of Bechuanaland, 1889: overprint on stamps of Cape of Good Hope (1886), 1890, June-1897: used stamps of British Bechuanaland, 1891-94: stamps of Great Britain overprinted “British Bechuanaland,” 1893-97: stamps of Cape of Good Hope overprinted “British Bechuanaland,” 1895, Nov. 16: Bechuanaland annexed by Cape of Good Hope, stamps continued in use in the Protectorate until 1897, 1886-97: Cape of Good Hope became a province in the Union of South Africa, 1890: Protectorate and British Bechuanaland used one postal administration, 1897-1926: “Bechuanaland Protectorate” overprint on stamps of Great Britain, 1899: Boer War, stamps of Colony and Protectorate overprinted for “Mafeking Siege,” 1910: stamps of South Africa used in addition to stamps of Cape Colony, 1926: first postage due stamp issued, 1932-38: issued own stamps of Bechuanaland Protectorate, 1935: first pictorial stamp issued, 1937: stamps of Cape Colony no longer valid. 1945: “Bechuanaland” overprint on stamps of South Africa, 1947-66: Bechuanaland Protectorate stamps, 1966, Sept. 30: Bechuanaland Protectorate became Republic of Botswana; see Botswana.
Bechuanaland, British: stamps of Cape of Good Hope (1871-75) ovptd/surcharged “British Bechuanaland,”1887: stamp of Great Britain overprinted “British Bechuanaland,”1887-88: British Bechuanaland, inscription, 1891-94: stamps of Great Britain overprinted “British Bechuanaland,” 1893-97: stamps of Cape of Good Hope overprinted “British Bechuanaland.”
Bechuanaland Protectorate: South Africa, overprint; 1888, Aug. 7-90: overprint “Protectorate” on stamps of Bechuanaland, 1889: overprint on stamps of Cape of Good Hope(1886),1897-1926: overprint on stamps of Great Britain (1881-87), 1910: overprint on stamp of Transvaal (Sc.274), 1945: overprint on stamps of South Africa (Sc.100-102).
Bechuanaland Protectorate: Gastric Clinic; unissued Great Britain cinderella by David Horry, 2001.
Beckmann’s City Post: Charleston, S.C., see: Carriers’ Stamps.
B. Economique: label; used on mail originating in Europe; means second day domestic delivery. Bedarfsbrief: (Ger.) mail sent for non-philatelic purposes.
Becsuánaföld: (Hung.) Bechuanaland.
Becsületes: (Hung.) white (color) (also féher).
Bedford & Co.’s Express: private post, serviced coast to coast, with connections to West Indies, Hawaii, some Central and South American ports; mid 1800s, mail, newspaper and package express; used corner cards, embossed envelopes, labels and stamps.
Bedienen: (Ger.) expedite.
Bed plate: contains bored holes into which perforating machine pins descend.
Bedrechein: Egypt, see: Interpostal seals, 1879-84.
Beecher, A. & Son. (A.B.&S;): private die match proprietary stamps.
Beekman’s Post: semi-official carrier service, Charleston, S.C., 1860-65, associated with John H. Honour.
Bee hive: US fancy cancel used in 19th century.
Beer stamps: tax paid revenue stamps, denominated in barrels & fractions of barrels,1866-1951.
Beez: (Est.) beige (color).
B. E. F.: British Expeditionary Force overprint.
Befestigungsleiste: (Ger.) stamp hinge.
Befeuchten: (Ger.) to moisten, dampen.
BEFM: British Expeditionary Force Mediterranean.
Befördert: (Ger.) forwarded.
Befreit: (Ger.) free frank, postage free.
Befreiungsmarken: (Ger.) stamps of liberation.
Begagnat: (Swed.) used.
Behaehckar: Russia, Wenden (Livonia).
Behie: (Turk.) overprint for discount postage to encourage use of Turkish stamps, 1901
Behna: Egypt, see: Interpostal seals, 1864-84.
Beige: (Eng., Fr., Ger., Sp.) grayish-tan color.
Beijing: also known as Peking, formerly Pei-ching, People’s Republic of China.
Beilegen: (Ger.) enclose.
Beirut: formerly Beyrouth, Lebanon; 1840-1914: French post office, 1857-85: used stamps of France, can be identified by diamond or dots cancels, 1857-Sept. 30, 1914: Russian postal agency, ROPiT, (Russian Company of Trade and Navigation) operated, used stamps of Russia 1870: Egyptian post office opened, 1873-1914: stamps of Great Britain, British Levant, 1873-83: Italian postal administration operating, 1905, Jan.: Beyrouth, French overprint used, 1906, July: British overprint for provisional use, 1909-10: Russia, overprinted stamps for Beirut, Offices in Turkish Empire.
Beisteuermarke: (Ger.) postal tax stamps required on letters, but not valid for postage; also called Zwangszuschlagsmarke.
Bej: (Rom.) beige (color).
Bejuma: town near Valencia, Venezuela; 1854: postmaster issued local post stamps to deliver mail.
Bekjentjøre: (Nor.) publish or notify.
Beklippet: (Nor.) cut into.
BEL: international postal code for Belarus.
Belalp: Switzerland hotel post, 1873-83.
Belanglos: (Ger.) insignificant, meaningless, unimportant.
Belarus: aka Byelorussia, Eastern Europe (White Russia); official name of postal administration: Belpochta currency: 100 kopecks = 1 ruble 1920: 5 denominations of a “stamp” may be a propaganda label, WW II-Post: became Belyorussian Soviet Socialist republic, within Soviet Union, 1947, May 13: joined the UPU, 1991, Dec. 26: joined Commonwealth of Independent States of the Soviet Union, 1992, March 20: No. 1, 1 ruble multicolor, first stamp as Belarus. #+9!CIE[: (Cyrllic) Belarus.
Belastingzegel: (Dut.) fiscal stamp.
Belebey: Russian town in Ufa Oblast ca. 250 miles of the city of Samara; issued numerous local Rural Post stamps (1890-1908), see Zemstvo.
Belegstück: (Ger.) specimen copy.
Belfast & County Down Railway: Ireland local post.
Belfast & Northern Counties Railway: Ireland local post.
Belg: (Fr.) Belgium postmark.
Belga: (Hung.) Belgian.
Belga-Kongó: (Hung.) Belgian Congo.
Belgia: (Nor., Pol.) Belgium.
Belgian Congo: former Belgian colony in Central Africa; currency: 100 centimes = 1 franc 1885: Congo Free State established, 1886: No.1, 5 centimes green, first stamps issued, 1887: first parcel post stamps, 1908: annexed to Belgium, renamed the Belgian Congo, 1918, May 18: first semipostal stamp issued, 1923: first postage due stamp issued, 1920, July 1: first air mail stamp issued, 1960: became independent as the Republic of the Congo, also known as Congo Free State; see A. O., Congo Democratic Republic, Zaire.
Belgian Congo, forged issues: 1: 1894 Port Matadi, Scott 16, 1895. 2: 1895 Stanley Falls, Scott 18. 3: 1894 Inkissi Falls, Scott 20. 4: 1894 M’pozo railroad bridge, Sc 22.
Belgian East Africa: see: Ruanda Urundi.
Belgian Occupation of German East Africa: Belgian Congo stamps overprint; 1916: “Est Africain Allemand Occupation Belge,” 1924: became Belgian mandate and renamed Ruanda-Urundi. Belgian Occupation of Germany (part): Eupen, Malmedy stamps; 1919-20: “Allemagne/Duitschland”(Flemish) overprint, 1919-21: Poste Militaire postmark used for Belgian troops.
Belgica: (Port., Sp.) Belgium.
Belgicky: (Czech.) Belgian.
Belgie: 1. (Flem.) Belgium inscription. 2. (Czech.) Belgium.
Belgien: 1. (Ger.) Belgium, overprint; 1914-18: on stamps of Germany, German Occupation, World War II occupation stamps consisted of surcharge, but no country name. 2. (Dan., Swed) Belgium
Belgie posterijen: (Flemish) inscription, 1891-96, Belgium post.
Belgio: (It.) Belgium.
Belgique: (Fr.) Belgium.
Belgisch: (Ger.) Belgian.
Belgische besatzungspost in Deutschland: (Ger.) Belgian occupation of Rhineland.
Belgisch Congo: inscription 1910-60.
Belgisch Kongo: (Ger.) Belgian Congo.
Belgisk: (Dan., Nor., Swed.) Belgian (adj.).
Belgiska Kongo: (Dan., Nor., Swed.) Belgian Congo.
Belgisk Congo: (Dan.) Belgian Congo.
Belgium: Western Europe; name came from the Celtic, Belgae; official name of postal administration: La Poste currency: 1833:100 centimes = 1 franc 2002: 100 cents = 1 Euro; stamps of this country may be found in the Belgium Stamp Catalog; 1500s: postal service via Thurn and Taxis, 1701: French postal service replaced Thurn and Taxis, 1725: Thurn and Taxis returned, 1744: French postal service replaced Thurn and Taxis, 1748: Austrian postal service used, 1793-1814: French postal administration used, 1814: Prussian postal service used, 1849, July 1: No.1, 10 centimes brown; first stamps issued without name of country, 1850: used rectangle within lines in a circle as a cancel, 1869: Belgique (Fr.) appeared on stamps, 1870: first postage due stamp issued, 1875, July 1: joined the UPU, 1879: first railway stamp “chemins de fer” 1893: Belgie (Flemish) and Belgique (Fr.) appeared jointly on stamps, 1911, June 1: first semipostal stamp issued, 1914, Oct.1: Germany issued stamps for occupied Belgium, WW II: occupied by Germany, 1928: first newspaper stamp, 1929: first official stamp issued, 1930, April 30: first air mail stamp issued, 1939: first military parcel post stamp issued, 1967: July 17: first military stamp issued, 2002: stamps in Belgian francs change to euros July 1, 2002; see Allemagne-Duitschland (Flemish), Ambulant.
Belgium, Belga: (Hung.) Belgium, Belgian (adj.).
Belgium Congo: 1908: annexed to Belgium as a colony, admitted to the UPU, 1923, Aug. 31: Ruanda-Urundi became independent, affiliated with the UPU, 1960, July 1: became the independent Republic of the Congo, see Congo Democratic Republic.
Belgium, forged issues: 1: 1912-15 King Albert I, Scott 102. 2: 1914 Merode Monument, Scott B28-30. 3: 1882-94 parcel post, Scott Q7-Q15.
Belgium, German Occupation: 1914-18: surcharge/overprint on stamps of Belgium. Belgian Occupation of German East Africa: Belgian Congo stamps overprint; 1916: “Est Africain Allemand Occupation Belge”, 1924: became Belgian mandate and renamed Ruanda-Urundi. Belgian Occupation of Germany (part): Eupen, Malmedy stamps; 1919-20: “Allemagne/Duitschland”(French/Flemish) overprint, 1919-21: Poste Militaire postmark used for Belgian troops, 1920: first postage due stamp issued.
Belgium, reduced rates: surcharge; 1946: -10% by individual post offices.
Belice es Nuestro: (Sp.) “Belize is Ours” inscription on stamp of Guatemala as propaganda for territory, 1959.
Beliebtes Sammelgebiet: (Ger.) favorite collecting field.
Belize: Central America; formerly British Honduras; currency: 100 cents = 1 dollar 1866: British colonial stamps issued as British Honduras, 1973, June 11: “Belize” overprint on British Honduras stamps, 1973, June 1: No.1, ½ cent multicolor; 1974, Jan.1: first stamps as Belize, 1976, July 1: first postage due stamp issued, 1981, Sept. 21: became independent, 1982, Oct. 1:joined the UPU, 1982, Dec. 10: first semipostal.
Belize Relief Fund: overprint on British Honduras semi-postals; for Sept.1931 hurricane relief.
Belle: (Fr.) nice, fine, good.
Bellegarde: local provisional, French, 1944.
Bellerby Pirate Post: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Bellreguart: local, Spanish civil war, Republican forces, 1937.
Bell’s Dispatch: bogus Canadian local post.
Bell’s Express: local parcel express serviced Boston, Danvers, Danversport, and Danvers centre, Mass; used a label, year unknown.
Bell’s Taxis, Lincoln: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Belmont via Bologne: local Great Britain strike, Osborne’s Emergency Service, 1971.
Belorusko: (Czech.) Belarus (White Russia).
Belorusky: (Czech.), Belarusian (White Russia).
Bélyegfüzet: (Hung.) booklet pane.
Bélyeg Postautalványon: (Hung.) postage stamp on a postal money order.
Bélyeg Szállítólevélen: (Hung.) postage stamp on a parcel post card.
Bélyeg Táviraton: (Hung.) postage stamp on a telegram.
Bélyegtekercs: (Hung.) stamp roll (coil stamps).
Bélyegzéssel: (Hung.) cancellation.
Bélyegzett: (Hung.) used, canceled, see használ.
Bemrose, William and Henry Howe: obtained perforating rotary patent in 1854, US stamps used this device since 1857.
Bemutatás: (Hung.) exhibition.
Benadalid: local, Spanish civil war, Nationalist forces, 1937.
Benaders: overprint, Persian port; 1911-12: used stamps of Iran, 1921: used at Iranian Persian Gulf ports, 1922: overprint on stamps of Persia. Benadir: on Somali Coast; 1897: controlled by Italy, 1903, Oct. 12: inscription used on first stamps of Italian Somaliland, 1922, April: name changed to Italian Somalia, 1960, July 1: area combined with British Somaliland Protectorate to form Somalia; see Afars and Issas, Djibouti, Obock, Oltre Giuba, Italian East Africa, Somaliland, Italian.
Benadir: on Somali Coast; 1897: controlled by Italy, 1903, Oct. 12: inscription used on first stamps of Italian Somaliland, 1922, April: name changed to Italian Somalia, 1960: area combined with British Somaliland Protectorate to form Somalia.
Benagalbon: local, Spanish civil war, Nationalist forces, 1937.
Benaguacil: local, Spanish civil war, Republican forces, 1937.
Benahavis: local, Spanish civil war, Nationalist forces, 1937.
Benaholiz: local, Spanish civil war, Nationalist forces, 1937.
Benalaurin: local, Spanish civil war, Nationalist forces, 1937.
Benalmadena: local, Spanish civil war, Nationalist forces, 1937.
Benamargosa: local, Spanish civil war, Nationalist forces, 1937.
Benämningar: (Swed.) printing terms.
Benamocarra: local, Spanish civil war, Nationalist forces, 1937.
Benaojan: local, Spanish civil war, Nationalist forces, 1938.
Benasal: local, Spanish civil war, Republican forces, 1937.
Benarraba: local, Spanish civil war, Nationalist forces, 1937.
Bendel, B. & Co.: private die match proprietary stamps.
Bendel, H.: private die match proprietary stamps.
Beneficencia: (Sp.) Spain charity labels with no franking value, but permitted for postal use from one postal employee to another, issued by a postal welfare organization.
Beneficienza (francobollo di): (It.) charity stamps: stamps sold at more than the inscribed face value, with the difference between the face value and the selling price used for charity work; these are often called semi-postal stamps.
Beneficos: (Sp.) charity stamps.
Benejana: local, Spanish civil war, Republican forces, 1937.
Ben Franklin Stamp Clubs: 1980s: USPS sponsored stamp clubs of school children.
Bengasi: overprint on stamps of Italy; July 1901-11: first stamps issued at Italian post office, Ottoman Empire, 1912: Libyan issues used, now spelled Banghazi, Libya, see Italian Offices in Turkish Empire.
Benicario: local, Spanish civil war, Republican forces, 1937.
Benifallin: local, Spanish civil war, Republican forces, 1937.
Benifayo: local, Spanish civil war, Republican forces, 1937.
Beni-Korrah: Egypt, see: Interpostal seals, 1879-1882.
Beni-Mazar: Egypt, see: Interpostal seals, 1879-1884.
Benin: West Coast of Africa, formerly Dahomey; currency: 100 centimes = 1 CFA franc 1888: first stamps French Colonies General issues at Porto Novo, 1892, Sept.: No.1, 1 centime bluish; overprint “Benin” on stamps of French Colonies, 1893: inscribed “Golfe De Benin” full name Établissements Français du Golfe de Benin, 1894: inscribed “Benin,” 1894: first postage due stamp issued, “Benin” handstamp on stamps of French Colonies, 1895: French possessions incorporated into Dahomey, 1899: Dahomey used “Dahomey Et Dependances,” 1944-60: Dahomey used stamps of French West Africa, 1961, April 27: joined the UPU, 1975, Nov.: became People’s Republic of Benin, including Dahomey, with inscription “Republique Populaire Du Benin” 1976: first air mail stamps issued, 1976, April 30: first stamps as Republic, 1978: postage due stamp issued as Republic; see Dahomey, République Populaire Du Bénin. 1989: first parcel post stamp issued.
Benipeixcar: local, Spanish civil war, Republican forces, 1937.
Benisouef: Egypt, see: Interpostal seals, 1868-80.
Benjamin & Sarpy: Alfred Benjamin and Julian Sarpy were dealers in faked and forged stamps in late 1880s, careers ended in 1892 when sentenced to jail in London.
Ben Kulen: local overprint, Sumatra, Japanese occupation, 1942-45.
Bennett, D.M.: inscription on Medicine stamp; see Private die proprietary stamps.
Bent & Lee: private die match proprietary stamps.
Bentley’s Dispatch: US local post, New York, N.Y., 1856(?).
Bentz, H & M: private die match proprietary stamps.
Benzine: used to identify watermarks, but highly volatile.
Benzyna(y): (Pol.) watermark detection fluid(s), e.g. benzine.
Beograd: also known as Belgrade, Yugoslavia.
BEP: see: Bureau of Engraving and Printing.
Bepaald: (Dut.) definitive.
Beppu: Japan (only English word inscription on stamp).
B.E.P.T.O.M.: (Fr.) Bureau d’etude des postes et telecommunications d’outre-mer; Department of Research for Overseas Posts and Telecommunications.
BEQ: letter-code within cds (q.v.) assigned to Bequia, St. Vincent, BWI (1894-1908), 1871 pop. 969.
Bequia Island: Grenadines of St. Vincent island, stamps first issued in 1976.
Berdyansk: (formerly Osipenko) Russian town in Tavric Oblast (now Ukraine) ca. 45 miles SW of Mariapol; issued over 80 different local Rural Post stamps (1870-1882), see Zemstvo.
Berford & Co.’s Express: U.S. local post, 1851 for mail from New York to Panama and then to west coast ports of North and South America.
Berg.: (Ger.) mountain, as a theme or topic.
Berga: local, Spanish civil war, 1937.
Bergbau.: (Ger.) mining, as a theme or topic.
Bergedorf: German State; 1861, Nov. 1: issued its own stamps, 1867: purchased by Hamburg, 1868: stamps of the North German Confederation.
Bergdorf: local, Germany, Brief-Beförderungs-Gesellschaft, 1887-88.
Bergen: Seaport city and seat of Hordaland county in SW Norway ca. 220 miles W of Oslo. Local post established, with first “Bergens / By-Post” lithographed 2 Skilling imperforate dark brown on wove paper local stamp issued in 1865, and a second samedesign 2 Skilling imperforate brown on greyish wove paper issued in 1866.
Bergen bypost: Norway local post, 1865-69.
Bergen – F. Schroeter Local Post: Local post re-organized by F. Schroeter as the successor company to the Norshuss & F. Schroeter Local Post (q.v.) company. Red (shades) “Bypost / 2 / Bergen // 2 Skilling” local stamp issued in 1869.
Berg. Gladbach: local, Germany, 1918-23.
Bergqvist Lokala Expressposten: see Hälsingborg – A. Bergqvist Lokala Expressposten.
Bergen – Norshuss & F. Schroeter Local Post: Local post established by Messrs. Norshuss and F. Schroeter, with a 2 Skilling imperforate black on lilac-rose paper “By-Post / 2 / Bergen” local stamp being issued 1 July 1868. Identical stamps in different colors are proofs.
Berlin: Germany: overprint in Russian Zone of Occupation, post WW II; 1945, June: Berlin-Brandenburg; OPD Berlin, Russian Zone post WW II, see O.P.D. 1946, Feb.: Soviet, American and British Zones used combined issue, 1946, June 24: Russia issued their own stamps with “O.P.D.” overprint, 1948, July 1: Russians withdrew from four-power control of city, 1948, July 3: Sowjetische Besatzungs Zone; Soviet Zone overprint, 1948, Sept. 1: Allied occupation stamps “Berlin” overprinted diagonally in black for use in American, British and French occupation zone of Berlin, 1949, Jan.: overprint in red for revised currency, 1949, Oct. 9: new stamps for East and West Berlin, 1990, Sept. 27: last issue, stamps of West Berlin discontinued, 1991, Dec. 31: reunion of the two Germany’s.
Berlin-Brandenberg: Soviet Occupation, 1945: Issued “Berlin Bear” stamp.
Berlinerblå: (Swed.) Prussian blue (color).
Berlin Germany: overprint in Russian Zone of Occupation, post WW II; 1945, June: Berlin-Brandenburg; OPD Berlin, Russian Zone post WW II, see: O.P.D. 1946, Feb.: Soviet, American and British Zones used combined issue, 1946, June 24: Russia issued their own stamps with “O.P.D.” overprint, 1948, July 3: “Sowjetische Besatzungs Zone” Russian Zone overprint, 1948, Sept. 1: Allied occupation stamps overprinted in black for use in Western zone of Berlin, 1949, Jan.: overprint in red for revised currency, 1949, Oct. 9: new stamps for East and West Berlin, 1990: stamps of West Berlin discontinued, 1991, Dec. 31: reunion of the two Germanys.
Berliner Ausgabe: (Ger.) Berlin issue, stamps of German colonies and offices.
Berlinerbla: (Dan., Swed.) Prussian blue (color).
Berlinikék: (Hung.) Prussian blue (color).
Berlino: (It.) Berlin.
Bermellon: (Sp.) vermillion (color).
Bermuda: island in the Atlantic off the coast of the U.S.; official name of postal administration: Bermuda Post Office currency: 4 farthings = 1 penny, 12 pence = 1 shilling, 20 shillings = 1 pound, 100 cents = 1 dollar (1970) 1609: became British colony, 1784-1812: Bermuda Gazette operated a domestic postal service, 1820-1859: external mails handled by London packet agent, 1848-54: Hamilton Postmaster William B. Perot produced stamps, 1865, Sept. 13: No.1, 1 penny rose red, stamps of Bermuda issued, 1918: first War Tax stamp issued, 1936: postal-fiscal stamp issued, used for revenue and postage, 1968, July 1: first stamps as a self-government.
Bermuda: inscription, Six Shillings, unissued Great Britain cinderella by David Horry, 2001.
Bermuda: inscription, Devil’s Triangle, unissued Great Britain cinderella by David Horry, 2001.
Bermuda, forged issue: 1865-89 Queen’s head, Scott 1, 19.
Bermudák: (Hung.) the Bermuda Islands.
Bermudes: (Fr.) Bermuda.
Bernburg: local, Germany, 1897-1900.
Berne: local airmail, Switzerland, 1913.
Bernera: island off coast of Scotland, Great Britain local carriage label.
Berner ausgabe: (Ger.) Bern issue, some UPU stamps overprinted “Specimen.”
Bernsteingelb: (Ger.) amber (color).
Berørt: (Dan.) touched.
Berühmte: (Ger.) famous men, as a theme or topic.
Berührt: (Ger.) touched, adjoined, border on.
Besa: “Genuine” overprint, 1921-22: Albania validity control.
Besættelse: (Dan.) occupation.
Besættelse, Allieret: (Dan.) Allied Forces occupation.
Besættelse, Allieret – i Azerbaidjan: (Dan.) WWI Allied Forces occupation of Azerbaijan.
Besættelse, Allieret – i Trakien: (Dan.) WWI Allied Forces occupation of Thrace.
Besættelse, Albansk: (Dan.) Albanian occupation.
Besættelse, Amerikansk: (Dan.) American occupation, United States occupation
Besættelse, Amerikansk – i Tyskland: (Dan.) American occupation of Germany, United States occupation of Germany.
Besættelse, Australsk: (Dan.) Australian occupation.
Besættelse, Australsk – i Japan: (Dan.) Australian occupation of Japan.
Besættelse, Belgisk: (Dan.) Belgian occupation.
Besættelse, Belgisk – i Tyskland: (Dan.) Belgian occupation of Germany.
Besættelse, Belgisk – i Tysk Øsrafrika: (Dan.) Belgian occupation of German East Afrika.
Besættelse, Bolivisk: (Dan.) Bolivian occupation.
Besættelse, Britisk: (Dan.) British occupation.
Besættelse, Britisk – i Batum: (Dan.) British occupation of Batum.
Besættelse, Britisk – i Bushire: (Dan.) British occupation of Bushire.
Besættelse, Britisk – i Irak: (Dan.) British occupation of Iraq.
Besættelse, Britisk – i Kamerun: (Dan.) British occupation of Cameroun.
Besættelse, Britisk – i Kreta: (Dan.) British occupation of Crete.
Besættelse, Britisk – i Mesopotamien: (Dan.) British occupation of Mesopotamia.
Besættelse, Britisk – i Orangeåen Kolonie: (Dan.) British occupation of Orange River Colony.
Besættelse, Britisk – i Palestinien: (Dan.) British occupation of Palestine.
Besættelse, Britisk – i Persien: (Dan.) British occupation of Persia.
Besættelse, Britisk – i Togo: (Dan.) British occupation of Togo.
Besættelse, Britisk – i Tysk Østrafrika: (Dan.) British occupation of German East Africa.
Besættelse, Bulgarsk: (Dan.) Bulgarian occupation.
Besættelse, Bulgarsk – i Rumænien: (Dan.) Bulgarian occupation of Romania.
Besættelse, Dansk: (Dan.) Danish occupation.
Besættelse, Finsk: (Dan.) Finnish occupation.
Besættelse, Finsk – i Rusland: (Dan.) Finnish occupation of Russia.
Besættelse, Fransk: (Dan.) French occupation.
Besættelse, Fransk – i Cilicien: (Dan.) French occupation of Cilicia.
Besættelse, Fransk – i Kamerun: (Dan.) French occupation of Cameroun.
Besættelse, Fransk – i Kastellorizo: (Dan.) French occupation of Castellorizo.
Besættelse, Fransk – i Kreta: (Dan.) French occupation of Crete.
Besættelse, Fransk – i Rumænien: (Dan.) French occupation of Romania.
Besættelse, Fransk – i Syrien: (Dan.) French occupation of Syria.
Besættelse, Fransk – i Togo: (Dan.) French occupation of Togo.
Besættelse, Fransk – i Tyskland: (Dan.) French occupation of Germany.
Besættelse, Fransk – i Ungarn: (Dan.) French occupation of Hungary.
Besættelse, Graesk: (Dan.) Greek occupation.
Besættelse, Graesk – i Æægiske øer: (Dan.) Greek occupation of the Aegean Islands..
Besættelse, Graesk – i Epirus: (Dan.) Greek occupation of Epirus.
Besættelse, Graesk – i Trakien: (Dan.) Greek occupation of Thrace.
Besættelse, Graesk – i Tyrkiet: (Dan.) Greek occupation of Turkey.
Besættelse, Graesk – i Vesttrakien: (Dan.) Greek occupation of Western Thrace.
Besættelse, Hollandnsk: (Dan.) Dutch occupation.
Besættelse, Italiensk: (Dan.) Italian occupation.
Besættelse, Italiensk – i Æægiske øer: (Dan.) Italian occupation of the Aegean Islands.
Besættelse, Italiensk – i Abyssinia: (Dan.) Italian occupation of Abysinia ( Ethiopia).
Besættelse, Italiensk – i Dalmatien: (Dan.) Italian occupation of Dalmatia.
Besættelse, Italiensk – i Korfu: (Dan.) Italian occupation of Corfu.
Besættelse, Italiensk – i Kreta: (Dan.) Italian occupation of Crete.
Besættelse, Italiensk – i Østrig: (Dan.) Italian occupation Austria.
Besættelse, Japansk – i Hollandsk Indies: (Dan.) Japanese occupation of the Dutch (East) Indies.
Besættelse, Litauensk – i Memelområdet: (Dan.) Lithuanian occupation Memel.
Besættelse, Japansk: (Dan.) Japanese occupation.
Besættelse, Japansk – i Hollandsk Indies: (Dan.) Japanese occupation of the Dutch (East) Indies.
Besættelse, Japansk – i Kina: (Dan.) Japanese occupation of China.
Besættelse, Japansk – i Korea: (Dan.) Japanese occupation of Korea.
Besættelse, Japansk – i Malay: (Dan.) Japanese occupation of Malaya.
Besættelse, Japansk – i Manchuriet: (Dan.) Japanese occupation of Manchuria.
Besættelse, Japansk – i Philippinerne: (Dan.) Japanese occupation of the Philippines.
Besættelse, Kinesisk: (Dan.) Chinese occupation.
Besættelse, Kroatiensk: (Dan.) Croatian occupation.
Besættelse, Østrigsk: (Dan.) Austrian occupation.
Besættelse, Østrigsk – i Italien: (Dan.) Austrian occupation of Italy.
Besættelse, Østrigsk – i Montenegro: (Dan.) Austrian occupation of Montenegro.
Besættelse, Østrigsk – i Rumænien: (Dan.) Austrian occupation of Romania.
Besættelse, Østrigsk – i Serbien: (Dan.) Austrian occupation of Serbia.
Besættelse, Portugisisk: (Dan.) Portuguese occupation.
Besættelse, Rumæniensk: (Dan.) Romanian occupation.
Besættelse, Rumæniensk – i Ungarn: (Dan.) Romanian occupation of Hungary.
Besættelse, Rumæniensk – i Vestukraine: (Dan.) Romanian occupation of Western Ukraine.
Besættelse, Russisk: (Dan.) Russian occupation.
Besættelse, Russisk – i Kreta: (Dan.) Russian occupation of Crete.
Besættelse, Russisk – i Letland: (Dan.) Russian occupation of Latvia.
Besættelse, Russisk – i Litauen: (Dan.) Russian occupation of Lithuania.
Besættelse, Russisk – i Tyskland: (Dan.) Russian occupation of Germany.
Besættelse, Serbienisk – i Ungarn: (Dan.) Serbian occupation of Hungary.
Besættelse, Spansk: (Dan.) Spanish occupation.
Besættelse, Svensk: (Dan.) Swedish occupation.
Besættelse, Tyrkisk: (Dan.) Turkish occupation.
Besættelse, Tysk: (Dan.) German occupation.
Besættelse, Tysk – i Belgien: (Dan.) German occupation of Belgium.
Besættelse, Tysk – i Estland: (Dan.) German occupation of Estonia.
Besættelse, Tysk – i Frankrig: (Dan.) German occupation of France.
Besættelse, Tysk – i Letland: (Dan.) German occupation of Latvia.
Besættelse, Tysk – i Litauen: (Dan.) German occupation of Lithuania.
Besættelse, Tysk – i Luxemburg: (Dan.) German occupation of Luxembourg.
Besættelse, Tysk – i Polen: (Dan.) German occupation of Poland.
Besættelse, Tysk – i Rumænien: (Dan.) German occupation of Romania.
Besættelse, Tysk – i Rusland: (Dan.) German occupation of Russia.
Besættelse, Ungarnsk: (Dan.) Hungarian occupation.
Besatzungsausgabe: (Ger.) occupation issue.
Besatzungsfeldpost: (Ger.) occupation fieldpost.
Besatzung: (Ger.) occupation.
Besatzungausgabe: (Ger.) occupation issue.
Beschadigd: (Dut.) damaged.
Beschädigt: (Ger.) damaged.
Beschaffenheit: (Ger.) condition.
Bescheinigen: (Ger.) certify, authenticate.
Beschnitten: (Ger.) close cut (margins).
Beschreibung: (Ger.) description.
Beschriftung: (Ger.) inscription.
Besetztes gebiet NordFrankreich: (Ger.) overprint handstamp; 1940:on French definitives used by German troops after the British evacuation of Dunkerque.
Besetzung: (Ger.) occupation.
Besetzung, Albanische: (Ger.) Albanian occupation.
Besetzung, Albanische: (Ger.) Albanian occupation.
Besetzung, Alliierte: (Ger.) WWII Allied occupation.
Besetzung, Amerikanische: (Ger.) United States occupation.
Besetzung, Australische: (Ger.) Australian occupation.
Besetzung, Belgische: (Ger.) Belgian occupation.
Besetzung, Britische: (Ger.) British occupation.
Besetzung, Bulgarische: (Ger.) Bulgarian occupation.
Besetzung, Chinesische: (Ger.) Chinese occupation.
Besetzung, Dänische: (Ger.) Danish occupation.
Besetzung, Deutsche: (Ger.) German occupation.
Besetzung, Finnische: (Ger.) Finnish occupation.
Besetzung, Französisische: (Ger.) French occupation.
Besetzung, Griechische: (Ger.) Greek occupation.
Besetzung, Indische: (Ger.) Indian occupation.
Besetzung, Italianische: (Ger.) Italian occupation.
Besetzung, Japanische: (Ger.) Japanese occupation.
Besetzung, Jordannische: (Ger.) Jordanian occupation.
Besetzung, Litauische: (Ger.) Lithuanian occupation.
Besetzung, Österreiche: (Ger.) Austrian occupation.
Besetzung, Peruanische: (Ger.) Peruvian occupation.
Besetzung, Polnische: (Ger.) Polish occupation.
Besetzung, Russische: (Ger.) Russian occupation.
Besetzung, Rumänische: (Ger.) Romanian occupation.
Besetzung, Serbische: (Ger.) Serbian occupation.
Besetzung, Sowjetische: (Ger.) Soviet (USSR) occupation.
Besetzung, Spanische: (Ger.) Spanish occupation.
Besetzung, Syrische: (Ger.) Syrian occupation.
Besetzung, Thailändische: (Ger.) Thai occupation.
Besetzung, Tschechoslowakische: V Czechoslovakian occupation.
Besetzung, Türkische: V Turkish occupation.
Besetzung, Ungarische: V Hungarian occupation.
Beskadiget: (Dan., Nor.) damaged.
Beskåret: (Dan., Nor.) cut close to stamp design.
Beskåret høyre side: (Nor.) cut close on right hand side of stamp design.
Beskåret høyre og øvre side: (Nor.) cut close on right hand and top sides of stamp design.
Beskåret høyre og nedre side: (Nor.) cut close on right hand and bottom sides of stamp design.
Beskåret nedre side: (Nor.) cut close at bottom side of stamp design.
Beskåret øvre side: (Nor.) cut close at top side of stamp design.
Beskåret venstre side: (Nor.) cut close on left hand side of stamp design.
Beskåret venstre og nedre side: (Nor.) cut close on left hand and bottom sides of stamp design.
Beskåret venstre og øvre side: (Nor.) cut close on left hand and top sides of stamp design.
Beskjeftigelse: (Nor.) occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Allierad: (Nor.) Allied Forces occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Allierad – på Azerbaidjan: (Nor.) WWI Allied Forces occupation of Azerbaijan.
Beskjeftigelse, Allierad – på Trakien: (Nor.) WWI Allied Forces occupation of Thrace.
Beskjeftigelse, Albansk: (Nor.) Albanian occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Amerikansk: (Nor.) American occupation, United States occupation
Beskjeftigelse, Amerikansk – av Tyskland: (Nor.) American occupation of Germany, United States occupation of Germany.
Beskjeftigelse, Australisk: (Nor.) Australian occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Australisk – av Japan: (Nor.) Australian occupation of Japan.
Beskjeftigelse, Belgisk: (Nor.) Belgian occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Belgisk – i Tyskland: (Nor.) Belgian occupation of Germany.
Beskjeftigelse, Belgisk – i Tysk Østafrika: (Nor.) Belgian occupation of German East Africa.
Beskjeftigelse, Bolivisk: (Nor.) Bolivian occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Britisk: (Nor.) British occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Britisk – av Batum: (Nor n.) British occupation of Batum.
Beskjeftigelse, Britisk – av Bushire: (Nor.) British occupation of Bushire.
Beskjeftigelse, Britisk – av Irak: (Nor.) British occupation of Iraq.
Beskjeftigelse, Britisk – av Kamerun: (Nor.) British occupation of Cameroun.
Beskjeftigelse, Britisk – av Kreta: (Nor.) British occupation of Crete.
Beskjeftigelse, Britisk – av Mesopotamien: (Nor.) British occupation of Mesopotamia.
Beskjeftigelse, Britisk – av Oransje Elv Kolonie: (Nor.) British occupation of Orange River Colony.
Beskjeftigelse, Britisk – av Palestinien: (Nor.) British occupation of Palestine.
Beskjeftigelse, Britisk – av Persien: (Nor.) British occupation of Persia.
Beskjeftigelse, Britisk – av Togo: (Nor.) British occupation of Togo.
Beskjeftigelse, Britisk – av Tysk Østrafrika: (Dan.) British occupation of German East Africa.
Beskjeftigelse, Bulgarisk: (Nor.) Bulgarian occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Bulgarisk – av Rumanien: (Nor.) Bulgarian occupation of Romania.
Beskjeftigelse, Dansk: (Nor.) Danish occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Finsk: (Nor.) Finnish occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Finsk – av Russland: (Nor.) Finnish occupation of Russia.
Beskjeftigelse, Fransk: (Nor.) French occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Fransk – av Cilicien: (Nor.) French occupation of Cilicia.
Beskjeftigelse, Fransk – av Kamerun: (Nor.) French occupation of Cameroun.
Beskjeftigelse, Fransk – av Kastellorizo: (Nor.) French occupation of Castellorizo.
Beskjeftigelse, Fransk – av Kreta: (Nor.) French occupation of Crete.
Beskjeftigelse, Fransk – av Rumania: (Nor.) French occupation of Romania.
Beskjeftigelse, Fransk – av Syrien: (Nor.) French occupation of Syria.
Beskjeftigelse, Fransk – av Togo: (Nor.) French occupation of Togo.
Beskjeftigelse, Fransk – av Tyskland: (Nor.) French occupation of Germany.
Beskjeftigelse, Fransk – av Ungarn: (Nor.) French occupation of Hungary.
Beskjeftigelse, Grekisk: (Nor.) Greek occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Grekisk – av Æægiske øy : (Nor.) Greek occupation of the Aegean Islands..
Beskjeftigelse, Grekisk – av Epirus: (Nor.) Greek occupation of Epirus.
Beskjeftigelse, Grekisk – av Trakien: (Nor.) Greek occupation of Thrace.
Beskjeftigelse, Grekisk – av Tyrkia: (Nor.) Greek occupation of Turkey.
Beskjeftigelse, Grekisk – av Vesttrakien: (Nor.) Greek occupation of Western Thrace.
Beskjeftigelse, Hollandsk: (Nor.) Dutch occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Italiensk: (Nor.) Italian occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Italiensk – av Æægiske øy: (Nor.) Italian occupation of the Aegean Islands.
Beskjeftigelse, Italiensk – av Abyssinia: (Nor.) Italian occupation of Abyssinia (Ethiopia).
Beskjeftigelse, Italiensk – av Dalmatia: (Nor.) Italian occupation of Dalmatia.
Beskjeftigelse, Italiensk – av Korfu: (Nor.) Italian occupation of Corfu.
Beskjeftigelse, Italiensk – av Kreta: (Nor.) Italian occupation of Crete.
Beskjeftigelse, Italiensk – av Østerrike: (Nor.) Italian occupation Austria.
Beskjeftigelse, Japansk: (Nor.) Japanese occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Japansk – av Filippinerna: (Nor.) Japanese occupation of the Philippines.
Beskjeftigelse, Japansk – av Hollandsk Indien: (Nor.) Japanese occupation of the Dutch (East) Indies.
Beskjeftigelse, Japansk – av Kina: (Nor.) Japanese occupation of China.
Beskjeftigelse, Japansk – av Korea: (Nor.) Japanese occupation of Korea.
Beskjeftigelse, Japansk – av Malaj: (Nor.) Japanese occupation of Malaya.
Beskjeftigelse, Japansk – av Manchuriet: (Nor.) Japanese occupation of Manchuria.
Beskjeftigelse, Kinesisk: (Nor.) Chinese occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Kroatisk: (Nor.) Croatian occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Litauisk – av Memelområdet: (Nor.) Lithuanian occupation Memel.
Beskjeftigelse, Østerrikisk: (Nor.) Austrian occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Østerrikisk – av Italia: (Nor.) Austrian occupation of Italy.
Beskjeftigelse, Østerrikisk – av Montenegro: (Nor.) Austrian occupation of Montenegro.
Beskjeftigelse, Østerrikisk – av Rumania: (Nor.) Austrian occupation of Romania.
Beskjeftigelse, Østerrikisk – av Serbien: (Nor.) Austrian occupation of Serbia.
Beskjeftigelse, Portugisisk: (Nor.) Portuguese occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Rumænsk: (Nor.) Romanian occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Rumænsk – av Ungarn: (Nor.) Romanian occupation of Hungary.
Beskjeftigelse, Rumænsk – av Vestukraine: (Nor.) Romanian occupation of Western Ukraine.
Beskjeftigelse, Russisk: (Nor.) Russian occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Russisk – av Kreta: (Nor.) Russian occupation of Crete.
Beskjeftigelse, Russisk – av Lettland: (Nor.) Russian occupation of Latvia.
Beskjeftigelse, Russisk – av Litauen: (Nor.) Russian occupation of Lithuania.
Beskjeftigelse, Russisk – av Tyskland: (Nor.) Russian occupation of Germany.
Beskjeftigelse, Serbisk – av Ungarn: (Nor.) Serbian occupation of Hungary.
Beskjeftigelse, Spansk: (Nor.) Spanish occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Svensk: (Nor.) Swedish occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Tyrkisk: (Nor.) Turkish occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Tysk: (Nor.) German occupation.
Beskjeftigelse, Tysk – av Belgia: (Nor.) German occupation of Belgium.
Beskjeftigelse, Tysk – av Estland: (Nor.) German occupation of Estonia.
Beskjeftigelse, Tysk – av Frankrike: (Nor.) German occupation of France.
Beskjeftigelse, Tysk – av Letland: (Nor.) German occupation of Latvia.
Beskjeftigelse, Tysk – av Litauen: (Nor.) German occupation of Lithuania.
Beskjeftigelse, Tysk – av Luxemburg: (Nor.) German occupation of Luxembourg.
Beskjeftigelse, Tysk – av Polen: (Nor.) German occupation of Poland.
Beskjeftigelse, Tysk – av Rumania: (Nor.) German occupation of Romania.
Beskjeftigelse, Tysk – av Russland: (Nor.) German occupation of Russia.
Beskjeftigelse, Ungersk: (Nor.) Hungarian occupation.
Besondere: (Ger.) special.
Bessarabia: bogus Russian overprint.
Besser: (Ger.) better grade.
Bestand: (Ger.) stock.
Bestätigungsstempel: (Ger.) cancel confirming mode of transportation and/or postal performance; such as per airmail, or flight delayed.
Bestemmende: (Nor.) definitive.
Bestruket Papper: (Swed.) coated paper.
Beta: Denmark; 1870-85: name given to flaws in bicolored stamps.
Betera: local, Spanish civil war, Republican forces, 1937.
Betrag: (Ger.) amount.
Betschuanaland: (Ger.) Bechuanaland.
Bewerten: (Ger.) to estimate, to price.
Bexar: (Sp.) now San Antonio, Texas.
Bexhill Delivery: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Beyrouth: overprint for Beirut, Offices in Turkey; 1873-1914: stamps of Great Britain postmarked, 1905: French Levant overprint stamp plus surcharge, 1909: overprint on stamps of Russia, Levant, Offices in the Turkish Empire, now Beirut, Lebanon.
Bez: (Pol.) without.
Béz: (Hung.) beige (color), see drapp.
Bezahlt: (Ger.) paid.
Bezeichnung: (Ger.) designation, name.
Bezirk: (Ger.) district.
Bezirksaufdruck: (Ger.) district, local overprint.
Bezirksgericht: (Ger.) Austrian court fee revenue stamp.
Bezirkshandstempel: (Ger.) local hand surcharge.
Bezirksmarke (HOPS): (Ger.) hand overprinted stamp cancelled for Russian occupation zone.
Bezirkspostamt: (Ger.) district post office.
Bez kleju: (Pol.) ungummed.
Bez lepu: (Czech.) 1. unused, no gum. 2. regummed.
Bézovy: (Czech.) beige (color).
Bez podlepki: (Pol.) never hinged.
BF: 1:Belgian franc, currency; 2: Burkina Faso, country code as used by UPU.
B. F.: (Fr.) French Post Office postmark.
BFAL Fireside Post: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
B.F.K. watermark seen on French-area artist’s die proofs.
BFM: British Fleet Mail.
BFMO: British Fleet Mail Office.
B.F.P.O.: British Forces Post Office.
BFPS: British Forces Postal Service.
BG: Benjamin Goldsworthy, BEP employee initials, 1906-1928; see Plate Finisher, Siderographer.
B.G.: 1: Botanical Garden, South Australia official overprint, 1868-74; 2: (It.) inscription, Bollo Gazzatte, newspaper tax stamps for Modena. 3. precedes the European postal code on addresses in Bulgaria, such as BG-1000 Sofia.
B-Gate: Bishopsgate Receiving House, London Penny Post.
B G D: (Bureau Grand Ducal) Duchy of Berg, Lubeck, postmark, 1806-Aug. 1808.
B Grill: grill used on US stamps in the 19th century.
B. Guiana: inscription on stamps for British Guiana.
BH: international postal code for Bosnia-Hercegovina.
Bhangies: Indian States term for parcel post service.
B. H. M. A. V. : Mongolia.
Bhopal: Feudatory State in India; 1876: No.1, 1/4 anna black; issued local use stamps, 1903-pre: inscription: H. H. Nawab Shah Jahan Begam, 1903: separate stamps discontinued, 1908, July 1: first official stamp issued, 1950, Apr. 1: official stamps replaced by stamps of the Republic of India.
Bhor: India Feudatory State, Bombay, British India; 1879: No.1, ½ anna carmine; first stamps, 1895: state post offices closed, 1901: stamps supplied to collectors as mint or used, 1902: used stamps of India.
Bhoutan: (Fr.) Bhutan.
bHP: (Cyrillic) cinderella, Belarusian National Rada (council).
Bhutan: kingdom in the Eastern Himalayas; currency: 100 chetrum = 1 ngultrum 1910: became British protectorate, 1949: became independent, 1955, Jan. 1: first stamps were fiscals, but validated for internal postal use, stamps of India required for external mailings, 1962, May: first stamps, covers usually also bore stamps of India, Tibet or China for external use, 1962, Oct.10: No.1 2 chetrun red/gray; first stamp issued, Bhutan stamps valid for international mail, 1964, Mar.: first semipostal stamp issued, 1967, Jan. 10: first air mail stamp issued, 1969, March 7: joined the UPU, 1973: issued the famous phonograph record stamps, and stamps with a scent.
B. I.: British India.
BI: 1: auction abbreviation for bisect topic or theme; 2: Burundi, country code as used by UPU. 3. letter-code within cds (q.v.) assigned to Biabou, St. Vincent, BWI (1873-1883), 1871 pop.56.
B I A: Bureau Issues Association, USA, see: USSS.
Biafra: overprint, part of Nigeria; 1967, May 30: proclaimed independent Republic of Biafra during civil war, 1968, Feb. 5: first internal stamps of revolutionary forces, later on external mail via air from Libreville, 1968: first semipostal stamps issued, 1970, Jan. 9: Nigerian stamps used, revolution over.
Bialy(o), Bialawy(o): (Pol.) white, whitish (color).
Bialystok: province in northern Poland; 1916: German military commander issued local stamps.
Bianco: (It.) white (color).
Bible Cover: Iceland cover with 22 Official 8-skilling stamps (20 in one block) from 1873 found in a bible.
Bíbor: (Hung.) purple (color).
Bíboivsörö: (Hung.) magenta (color).
Bíbor: (Hung.) magenta (color).
Bicentenaire: (Fr.) bicentenary.
Bicentenaire de Port-au-Prince: (Fr.) Haiti bicentenary.
Bicentenario de Talco: (Sp.) Chile, Talco postal tax.
Bicentennial: two hundredth anniversary; 1976: America celebrated its 200th birthday.
Bicester Post: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Bicolor: a stamp printed or otherwise produced in two colors.
Bicolored envelope: Nesbitt envelopes printed in two colors for USPO requirements, 1861.
Bicolored postmarks: Millpoint, N.Y, inking pad was divided half red, half violet, with dividing line, 1885.
Bicycle mail: operated with local stamps by themselves or with stamp of the country; 1890s: Western Australia as the Coolgardie Cycle Express, 1909: Mafeking, Boer War, 1918: South Africa. 1945: Amiens, France: Vaduz, Liechtenstein and Switzerland, 1953: Northern Italy.
Bicycle Mail Route: U. S. local post; 1894, between Fresno and San Francisco, Calif.
Bicycle posts: postal service operated by means of bicycle delivery.
Bid (opening): first, or opening bid at an auction; Ausgebot, Angebot (Ger.), Enchere (Debut) (Fr.), Offerta (Iniziale) (It.), Oferta (inicial) (Sp.).
Bid book: auction house data book composed of bids submitted by absentee bidders on the lots offered at auction, with the bid book being maintained manually or by electronic means.
Bidding against the ceiling, curtains: practice designed to artificially create higher realization for an auction lot by “accepting” bids from non-existent bidders.
Bidding circle: a group composed of two or more participants agreeing either not to bid against each other during a public auction, or to keep bids below a certain pre-agreed amount; also known as crossing off.
Bidding increments: series of regular increasing currency intervals called by the auctioneer during the bidding process for a lot.
Bidding paddle: card or similar item with a number assigned specifically for the bidder registered with the auctioneer, and used during the auction to denote active participation in the bidding procedures during the sale; permits early recording by an auctioneer of winning bidder.
Bid rigging: collusion among two or more dealers to withhold bids and permit one of their group to big for group and obtain material at a lower price, then the material is resold among the group’s members.
Bid sheet: mail order form with bids for a upcoming auction.
Bid shielding: a situation where two bidders collude where one buyer bids low, the other buyer bids very high to scare off other potential bidders; seconds before the Internet auction ends, the high bid is withdrawn, and the partner wins the lot by default.
B I E: vertical overprint; 1946: Bureau International d’Education, Switzerland.
Bieden: (Dut.) to bid (at an auction).
Biedformulier: (Dut.) bid sheet.
Bielefeld: local, Germany 1898-1900.
Biélorussie: (Fr.) Belarus.
Bielozersk: Russian town in Novgorod Oblast; issued numerous local Rural Post stamps (1868-1918), see Zemstvo.
Bien centré: (Fr.) well-centered.
Bienenkorbstempel: (Ger.) beehive cancel.
Bienfaisance (timbre de): (Fr.) charity stamps: stamps sold at more than the inscribed face value, with the difference between the face value and the selling price used for charity work; these are often called semi-postal stamps.
Bietempfehlung: (Ger.) suggested bid.
Bieten: (Ger.) to bid (at an auction).
Bieter: (Ger.) bidder.
Bigello: (It.) beige, grayish-tan color.
Bigelow’s Express: private mail serviced Boston to Canada; used a corner card, and labels; 1846-53.
Biggin Hill Free Post: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Big Head: see current name: Black Jack.
Big Mail: until 1772, Austrian postal system term for incoming foreign mail.
Bijawar: India Feudatory State; 1935: issued local use stamps, 1939: separate stamps discontinued, replaced by stamps of India.
Bijzonderevluchten: (Dut.) inscription; 1933: airmail issue.
Bilateral Treaty: postal treaty between two nations on international mail.
Bilá, Bíly: (Czech.) white (color).
Bilbao: local overprint, Spanish civil war, Nationalist and Republican forces, 1937.
Bilbes: Egypt, see: Interpostal seals, 1867-1880.
Bildfrei gestempelt: (Ger.) cancelled not to touch stamp design as requested by topicalists.
Bild: (Ger.) image (printed area of a stamp).
Bildgrösse: (Ger.) size of design.
Bildnis: (Ger.) portrait, illustration.
Bildpostkarte: (Ger.) picture postal card.
Bildpostkarte mit Eingedruckter Marke: (Ger.) picture postal card with imprinted stamp.
Bildseite: (Ger.) face or picture of stamp.
Bilhete: (Port.) postal card.
Billet de Banque: (Fr.) Bank note, paper money.
Bilingual: two languages on the same stamp.
Bilingual pairs: pair of stamps on which the inscription is in one language on one of the stamps, and in another language on the other stamp; common with stamps of South Africa.
Bilingue: (Fr., It.) bilingual, two languages on the same stamp.
Bilingüe: (Sp.) bilingual, two languages on the same stamp.
Billets de port payé: (Fr.) slips (of paper) for postage paid, sold in monasteries, courthouses, colleges and prisons in Paris, France, 1653 by Renouard de Villayer, who used an adhesive postage stamp for prepaid postage, and had street corner posting-boxes service ended due to vandalism to the boxes.
Billigst: (Ger.) cheapest.
Billigung: (Ger.) approval.
Bill Nyans: (Swed.) cheapest shade (color).
Bilpostur: (Ice.) bus transport.
Binit Bicska: overprint on stamps of Hungary for Banat, district of Hungary; 1919: stamps of Hungary for Serbian Occupation, 1919, July: Serbian troops withdrew, area divided between Romania and Yugoslavia.
B. I. O. T. : British Indian Ocean Territory; 1968: overprint on stamps of Seychelles.
Bipaket: (Swed.) parcel post.
Bipartido: (Port.) bisected.
Bipartite stamps: stamps printed in two parts with one part meant to be used as postage and the other as a receipt of mailing.
Bird: Czechoslovakia newspaper stamps, spread wing bird design.
Birket-el-Sabh: Egypt, see: Interpostal seals, 1864-1884.
Birlesik Kirallik: (Turk.) Great Britain.
Birks Circular Dist.: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Birmania: (Sp.) Burma.
Birmanie: (Fr.) Burma.
Birmingham City Centre: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Birmingham Private Post: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Birobidzhan: cinderella local, former Soviet-Jewish republic in Southern Siberia, 1993.
Birthday cover: covers or postcards postmarked on the date of a birthday.
“Birth Prince Henry”: 1984 surcharge on stamps of Aitutaki.
Bis: (Sp.) used in addresses where two houses have the same address to alert mailman to check name of recipient.
Bisagra: (Sp.) stamp hinge or mount.
Bisbal del Panades: local, Spanish civil war, Republican forces, 1937.
Biscay: Spanish Basque province; 1873: Carlist stamps, with Don Carlos’ portrait.
Biseccionado: (Sp.) bisected.
Bisect: stamp cut in half which has been used to pay the postage at half the face value of the original stamp; the bisect should becollected on the original cover with the postmark or cancellation covering the cut.
Bisectado, partido en dos: (Sp.) see: Bisect.
Bisecto: (Sp.) bisected stamp.
Bishop, Henry: appointed British postmaster general by Oliver Cromwell, 1660-63, and continued in that position during the Restoration and the accession of Charles II.
Bishop Mark: first dated postmark of Great Britain indicating day and month; 1661, about: Henry Bishop initiated form of a circle divided horizontally by a line with the month abbreviated to two letters in top half and day of the month in the lower half.
Bishop’s City Post: U. S. local post, Cleveland, Ohio, 1848-51, see: Carriers’ Stamps.
Bishop’s Stortford: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Bisseto: (Port.) bisect.
Bisseção, Bissetor: (Port.) bisect, bisecting.
Bister: (Eng., Ger.) dark brown, yellow brown (color).
Bistra-Post: see Romania – Bistra Local Post.
Bistre: (Fr., Sp.) dark brown bister, yellow brown (color).
Bistro: (It.) dark brown (color).
Bistru: (Rom.) bistre, yellowish-brown (color), see Brun-galbui.
Bistru-oliv: (Rom.) bistre-olive, yellowish-brown olive (color).
Bit: name of part that is affixed to a roller impressing into the newly formed paper, making the watermark.
Bite: the impression of design lines into the paper.
B. I. T.-OCT. 1930: Bureau International du Travail overprint;1: 1930: Belgium, International Labor Bureau; 2: 1938: Switzerland.
Bitola: formerly Monastir, Yugoslavia.
Bixcaia: (Sp.) early form of “Vizcaya” one of the Basque Provinces.
Bizonals: stamps issued in the Anglo-American zones of occupied Germany, 1945-49.
Bizone, Bizonia: American and British Zones of Occupation.
BJ: Benin, country code as used by UPU.
Bjælkenummerstempel: (Dan.) numerical oblit cancellation with bars.
B. J. & Co., (Barber, Jones & Co.): private die match proprietary stamps.
BJ de F: (Bureau Imperial de France) Duchy of Berg, Lubeck, postmark, c1806-Aug. 180
Bjorneborg: now Pori, Finland.
Bjorn oya: bogus Bear Island local post.
Bjuda: (Swed.) to bid (at an auction).
BK: booklet, (U.S., G.B.), Scott Catalogue number prefix.
B K C: airmail booklets, Scott Catalogue number prefix.
Bklt: abbreviation for booklet.
BKM: auction term abbreviation for Brookman Catalog.
Bkstp(d): abbreviation for backstamp(ed); see: Backstamp.
Bl: (Ger.) catalog abbreviation for blue (blau) overprint or surcharge.
BL: abbreviation for Bolaffi, Italian catalogue firm.
Blå: (Dan., Nor., Swed.) blue (color).
Blaa: (Dan.) blue (color).
Blåakt Grå: (Swed.) bluish-grey (color).
Blåakt Grön: (Swed.) bluish-green (color).
Blåaktig grønngrå: (Dan., Nor.) bluish green-grey (color).
Blåakt Lila: (Swed.) bluish-lilac (color).
Blåakt Mörkgrön-grön: (Swed.) bluish dark green-green (color).
Blåakt purpur: (Swed.) bluish-purple (color).
Blåakt violett: (Swed.) bluish-violet (color).
Black: the darkest color.
Bläck: (Swed.) ink.
Black bar: marking printed next to the arrows on sheets of British stamps with phosphor bands to help in checking supplies.
Black Blot: American Philatelic Society program; 1962-79: offered guidance on the world’s new stamp issues as to what issues they considered as unnecessary.
Black border: on the King Alexander memorial issue of Yugoslavia, 1934.
Black Flag Republic: Formosa, Japanese seceding state, 1895.
Black Hardings: nickname for the mourning stamps issued in 1923 for the death of President William Harding.
Black Heritage: U.S. stamps honoring Black Americans, started in 1978.
Black Honduras: black overprint and surcharge for newly established airmail route; 1915-16: Honduras, only two copies known to exist.
Black Jack: nickname given to the US 2c issue of 1863 showing Andrew Jackson’s head, printed in black.
Bläckmakulerad: (Swed.) pen canceled.
Black on color: used to describe an issue printed in black on colored paper with the actual color indicated being the color of the paper.
Black-out cancel: Canadian censored postmark used in port cities during WW II..
Black plates: plates originally used for the 1840 Penny Black, later used for the 1d red stamps.
Blackpool and Fylde: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Black print: 1: proofs of stamps pulled in black, not color of the issued stamp, from the actual printing plates: used for press releases. 2: Greenland: stamp-like labels, engraved by Slania and Rosing, sold by postal authorities to raise money for stamp shows.
Blackwell-Weilandy Book & Stationary Co.: private merchandise delivery serviced St.Louis, MO., used a label, year unknown.
Blad, Bledy: (Pol.) error, errors.
Blad (bledy) Pozorne: (Pol.) apparent color error(s) on a postage stamp that can be easily tampered with (e.g., missing silver color), to be purchased only with an expert’s guarantee.
Blæk: (Dan.) ink.
Blækannullering: (Dan.) pen cancellation.
Blåfiolett: (Nor.) blue-violet (color).
Blagoveshchensk: Far Eastern Republic; 1921: stamp issue.
Blågrå(Dan., Nor.) blue-grey (color).
Blågrön: (Swed.) blue-green, emerald-green (color); seeSmaragdgrön.
Blågrøn: (Dan.) blue-green (color).
Blå-grönakt Blå: (Swed.) blue-greenish blue (color).
Blagronn: (Nor.) cobalt (color).
Blågrønn: (Nor.) blue-green (color).
Blair, Montgomery: United States Postmaster General, 1862, Aug. 4: suggested a conference on international mail handling that led to the formation of the Universal Postal Union.
Blålig: (Dan., Nor.) bluish (color).
Blåliggrøn: (Dan.) bluish-green (color).
Blåliggrå: (Dan.) bluish-grey (color).
Blåliglilla: (Dan.) bluish-lilac (color).
Blåligpurpur: (Dan.) bluish-purple (color).
Blåligviolet: (Dan.) bluish-violet (color).
Blålila: (Swed.) blue-lilac (color).
Blå-ljusblå: (Swed.) blue-light blue (color).
Blanc: (Fr.) white (color).
Blanca: local, Spanish civil war, Republican forces, 1937.
Blanco: (Port., Sp.) white (color).
Blanco Karte: (Ger.) blank cover, with stamp affixed, to be postmarked for special occassions.
Blanc type: French stamp design in 1900, named after designer, Joseph Blanc.
Blandad: (Swed.) mixed.
Blandet: (Dan.) commercial cover.
Blanefield Strike Post: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Blanes: local, Spanish civil war, Republican forces, 1937.
Blånet: (Dan.) blued (color).
Blank (envelope): individual sheet of paper cut from the sheet by the knife in the envelope manufacturing stage; also known as shape.
Blanket: 1: papermaking term for the belt that carries newly formed paper; 2: rubber sheet used on offset presses to transfer the impression from the plate to paper.
Blase im Gummi: (Ger.) bubble in gum.
Blåskifer: (Dan.) blue-slate (color).
Blason: (Fr.) stamp with arms design.
Blåsort: (Dan.) blue-black (color).
 (Ger.) pale (color).
Blattalbum: (Ger.) page for album.
Blattpapier: (Ger.) sheet.
Blått påtryck: (Swed.) blue surcharge.
Blau, bl.: (Ger.) blue (color).
Blaue Karte: (Ger.) blue card from United Nations-Geneva; UN-Vienna has a white card; UN-New York has a green card.
Blaugel: (Ger.) commercial product to prevent stamps from adhering to album pages due to moisture absorption.
Blå-ultramarin: (Swed.) blue-ultramarine (color).
Blauw: (Neth.) blue (color).
Blauwgroen: (Neth.) bluish-green (color).
Blåviolett: (Swed.) blue-violet (color).
Blazon: (Rom.) coat-of-arms..
B L C I: Urdu language inscription on corners of stamps; 1800s-1900s: Feudatory State of Bhopal, India.
B.L. Co.: Ben Levy, US cancel or revenue stamp overprint for face powder product, 1914-16.
BLDG: USPS abbreviation for building.
Bleached: use of a chemical agent to lighten or remove a discoloration or foreign substance from a stamp.
Bleacher: U.S. Navy code name during WW II for Tonga.
Blechdosepost: (Ger.) see Tin Can Mail.
Bledny: (Pol.) faulty.
Bledy: (Czech.) pale (stamp color).
Bleeding: color that runs when immersed in water: also printing of design that overlaps onto the margin or next attached stamp.
Bleg: (Dan.) pale (as referencing the color of a postage stamp).
Blegblå: (Dan.) pale blue, light blue (color).
Blegbrun: (Dan.) pale brown, light brown (color).
Bleggrå: (Dan.) light gray (color).
Bleggrøn: (Dan.) pale green, light green (color).
Bleggul: (Dan.) pale yellow, light yellow (color).
Bleglila: (Dan.) pale lilac, light lilac(color).
Blegorange: (Dan.) pale orange, light orange (color).
Blegpurpur: (Dan.) pale purple, light purple (color).
Blegrød: (Dan.) pale red, light red (color).
Blegrosa: (Dan.) pale rose, light rose (color).
Blegrosarød: (Dan.) pale rose-red, light rose-red (color).
Blegviolet: (Dan.) pale violet, light violet (color).
Blek: 1. (Dan.) ink. 2. (Nor., Swed.) pale (as referencing the color of a postage stamp).
Blekblå: (Nor., Swed.) pale blue (color).
Blek blåakt grön: (Swed.) pale bluish-green (color).
Blek blåliggrønn: (Nor.) pale bluish-green, light bluish-green (color).
Blek blågrön: (Swed.) pale blue-green (color).
Blekbrun: (Nor., Swed.) pale brown, light brown (color).
Bleket: (Nor.) faded.
Blekfiolett: (Nor.) pale violet, light violet (color).
Blekgrå: (Nor., Swed.) pale grey, light grey (color).
Blekgrønn: (Nor.) pale green, light bgreen (color).
Blekgrön: (Swed.) pale green (color).
Blekgul: (Nor., Swed.) pale yellow, light yellow (color).
Blekitney(o): (Pol.) sky blue (color).
Blekk: (Nor.) ink.
Blekkannullering: (Nor.) pen cancellation.
Bleklila: (Swed.) pale lilac (color).
Bleklilla: (Nor.) pale lilac, light lilac (color).
Blekmosegrønn: (Nor.) pale moss-green (color).
Blekolivengrønn: (Nor.) pale olive-green, light olive-green (color).
Blekorange: (Swed.) pale orange (color).
Blekröd: (Swed.) pale red (color).
Blekrosa: (Nor., Swed.) pale rose, light rose (color).
Blekorange: (Swed.) pale orange (color).
Blekorangeröd: (Swed.) pale orange-red (color).
Blekoransje: (Nor.) pale orange, light orange (color).
Blekpurpur (Nor., Swed.) pale purple, light purple (color).
Blekpurpurpurrød (Nor., Swed.) pale purple-red (color).
Blekrød: (Nor.) pale red, light red (color).
Blekröd: (Swed.) pale red (color).
Blekrosa: (Nor, Swed.) pale rose, light rose (color).
Blekrosarød: (Nor.) pale rose-red, light rose-red (color).
Blekrosaröd: (Swed.) pale rose-red, light rose-red (color).
Blekviolett: (Swed.) pale violet (color).
Bleu: (Fr.) blue (color).
Bleues: (Fr.) “blues” stamps of classic France.
Bleu-foncé: (Fr.) dark blue.
Bleuté: (Fr.) paper that has unintentionally turned blue; found on early British issues..
Blinddruck: (Ger.) albino, print with no ink.
Blind perforation: perforation holes that have been lightly impressed into the stamps, leaving the paper intact, but considered as cut.
Blind stamp: a stamp with no mention of its country of origin; many revenue stamps fall into this category.
Blindtakking(Nor.) blind perforations (perforator impressing but not penetrating paper)
Blindtakning: (Dan.) blind perforations.
Blindtryk: (Dan.) albino printing (printed without designated inking).
Blindtrykk(Nor.) albino printing (printed without designated inking).
Blindzähnung: (Ger.) perforation that was not punched out completely.
Blister, gum: may be caused by excessive heat in gumming process, leaves areas of ungummed paper.
Blister, photographic: flaw from a defect in the photographic plate or film resulting in trapping of air or fluid.
Blitz perforation: perforations changed from De La Rue to Waterlows; 1936-43: New Zealand stamp series; due to the Blitzkrieg air raids on London.
Blizzard mail: U.S. local post, New York, N.Y., March 12-16, 1888, operated during blizzard.
Bljesak: bogus labels for Jugoslavia.
Blk: abbreviation for block of stamps, quantity in block should be quoted.
Bloating: an early philatelic term used for exhibitors who display several copies of the same stamp because it is rare.
Bloc: (Fr.) block, souvenir sheet (of stamps).
Bloc avec numero de planche: (Fr.) plate block.
Blocco: (It.) block, souvenir sheet (of stamps).
Blocco con numero di lastra: (It.) plate block.
Blocco di quattro: (It.) an unseparated group, or block, of four stamps.
Bloc commémoratif: (Fr.) souvenir sheet.
Bloc de patru marci: (Rom.) block-of-4 postage stamps.
Bloc de quatre: (Fr.) an unseparated group of four stamps.
Bloc-feuillet: (Fr.) sheet of a stamp or stamps, surrounded with a paper margin issued for a specific event or purpose, souvenir sheet..
Bloch, Herbert J.: (1907-87) received every top philatelic honor, best known for his ability as an expert.
Block: 1: (Ger.) block, souvenir sheet (of stamps); 2: an unseparated group of stamps; if the block is larger than four stamps, it is referred to as a block of six, block of eight, etc. 3: Michel 2001 catalogue considers blocks (souvenir sheets/miniature sheets) and sheetlets as items containing one, two or three stamps; four to six stamp are blocks, provided three of the stamps are different; items with the same four stamps are blocks when said stamp also appears at the same time in a sheet. 4. (Swed.) miniature sheet.
Blockade-run mail: US Civil War postal route between Europe and the Confederate States.
Block, arrow: block with attached margin with arrow; see: arrow block.
Blockausgabe: (Ger.) miniature sheet or sheetlet issue.
Blockbusting: breaking stamp multiples to yield singles that are well-centered or have full never-hinged gum.
Block, center gutter: block including two wide spaces separating the printed sheet into panes.
Block, center line: block with center lines and point of crossing.
Block, corner: one of four corners, usually with plate number where the margin is attached to the stamps, on rotary press, not flat plate in the U.S.
Blocked value: one value in each set of stamps issued by the German Democratic Republic; 1955-1982: the sale of which was restricted to control the philatelic traffic in these stamps, prevent speculation and and maintain a high sales value.
Blockform: (Ger.) miniature sheet format.
Block, irregular: block, not square, but description must contain number of stamps in block.
Block, line: contains either vertical or horizontal guide lines.
Bloco Comemorativo: (Port.) souvenir sheet.
Block of four, imperforate within: blocks that are perforated on all outside edges, but are missing perforations within the block, sometimes done intentionally.
Bloc report: (Fr.) block of stamp clichés from a small plate or stone, used to replicate a full plate (Bordeaux issue).
Block tagged: tagging applied on a stamp in a rectangle that does not touch the perforations.
Block, traffic lights: block with attached margin showing color checks.
Block type: a plain squared type without ornament.
Bloco: (Port.) block.
Bloco comemorativo: (Port.) souvenir sheet.
Bloco do quatro: (Port.) an unseparated group of four stamps.
Blocque con numero de plancha: (Sp.) plate block.
Bloc Report: (Fr.) block of clichés of stamps from a small plate or stone, used to replicate a full plate (Bordeaux issue).
Blodrød: (Dan., Nor.) blood red (color).
Blog: a web site made up of a personal journal characterized by a conversational writing style.
Blok: (Dan., Dut., Pol.) block (of stamps).
Blokados Fondui: (Lith.) Blockade Fund semiofficial label issued by Lithuania post office.
Blokk: 1. (Nor.) block (of stamps). 2. (Hung.) souvenir sheet.
Blokken van 4(vier) Zegels: (Neth.) block-of-4 postage stamps.
Blomme: (Dan.) plum (color).
Blonie: city in German-occupied Russian Poland, local post overprint, 1918-20.
Blood’s Penny Post: U. S. local post, Philadelphia Despatch Post, Philadelphia, Pa. 1843: operated by Robertson & Co., predecessor of D.O. Blood & Co.
Blood’s Penny Post: U. S. local post, D.O. Blood & Co. Despatch Post, Phil., Pa., 1845-54; formed by Daniel Otis Blood and Walter H. Blood, successor to Philadelphia Despatch Post. Blood’s Penny Post: U. S. local post, Philadelphia, Pa., 1855-60: acquired by Blood’s Penny Post general manager, Charles Kochersperger, when Daniel O. Blood died.
B. L. P.: (It.) overprint semi-postal with advertisements sold to benefit invalids; 1901-22: Buste Lettere Postali, Italy.
Bloque: (Sp.) block, souvenir sheet (of stamps).
Bloque de cuatro: (Sp.) an unseparated group of four stamps.
Blow, W.T.: inscription on Medicine stamp; see Private die proprietary stamps
Blu: (Sp.) blue (color).
Blu-chiaro: (It.) light blue (color).
Blu di Prussia: (It.) Prussian blue (color).
Blu Savoia: (It.) royal blue (color).
Blu Scuro: (It.) dark blue (color).
Blue: having the color of a clear sky, or the deep sea.
Bluebell Railway: British railway that printed stamps for mail carried on their trains to post offices.
Blue Boy: Alexandria, Virginia, postmaster’s provisional 5¢ black on blue paper; nickname taken from Thomas Gainsborough’s portrait of Thomas Buttall, wearing a blue suit.
Blue Cross: drawn or preprinted across the entire front of an envelope indicates that piece of mail is registered; mainly used in the British Empire
Blued: British stamps printed by De Le Rue on paper showing usually faint blue color, caused by reaction between the ink and chemicals in the paper; pre 1884: see: Ivory Head;
Bluefields: Nicaragua issue, 1904-11.
Blue Helmets: term used for United Nations Peacekeeping Forces, color of their helmets.
Blue Mauritius: unissued German 1980 Olympic stamp all used by the family of the then Minister of Posts.
Bluenose: 1929 50¢ stamp considered the most beautiful Canadian stamp, depicting schooner Bluenose in full sail.
Blue Plaques: British term for stamp designs that relate to London plaques that recognize famous people and events.
Blue Post Horn: imprinted on back of Swedish stamp paper as a “control print,” 1886.
Blueprint paper: paper made sensitive to light by treatment with a solution of yellow prussiate of potash and peroxide of iron.
Blue Rag Paper: used experimentally to produce U.S. stamps in 1909.
Blue Safety Paper: prussiate of potash added during paper manufacture to prevent the printing ink from penetrating deeply into the paper thus preventing the removal of the postmark by chemical means; created a blue appearance in British stamps of 1855-56; see: Ivory Head.
Blue savoia: (It.) royal blue (color).
Bluffton, So. Ca Paid 5: see: Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Bluish paper: a grayish blue colored paper used for the Washington-Franklin series of 1909; made on 35% rag paper stock, instead of the usual wood pulp paper, to see if excess paper shrinkage could be reduced; also known as Blue Paper..
Blukubade te Sarof: bogus label.
Blume: (Ger.) flower, as a theme or topic.
Blurred impression: if the printing plate strikes the paper in the printing process with a jarring motion, a blurred impression will be produced.
Blyszczacy(o): glossy (as referencing the color of a postage stamp).
B. M.: 1: Bench of Magistrates, South Australia official overprint, 1868-74; 2: see: Boite mobile, also British Administration.
BM: Bermuda, country code as used by UPU.
B. M.: Bench of Magistrates, South Australia official overprint, 1868-74.
B. M. A.: British Military Administration.
B. M. A. Burma: on stamps of Burma; 1945-51: British Military Administration.
B. M. A. Eritrea: overprint on stamps of Great Britain, Offices in Africa; 1948-49: British Military Administration.
B. M. A. Malaya: overprint on Straits Settlements;1945-51: British Military Administration.
B. M. A. North Borneo: overprint North Borneo; 1945-51: British Military Administration.
B. M. A. Sarawak: overprint Sarawak; 1945-51: British Military Administration.
B. M. A. Somalia: overprint Great Britain, Offices in Africa;1948-49: British Military Adm.
B. M. A. Tripolitania: overprint on stamps of Great Britain, Offices in Africa; 1948, July 1-49: British Military Administration, 1950, Feb. 6-Dec. 1951: used in Tripolitania only.
BMC: Bernard M. Connelly, BEP employee initials, 1906-1928; see Plate Finisher, Siderographer.
BMEF: British Mediterranean Expeditionary Force.
BMM: British Military Mission, Indian Army, 1984.
BN: 1: auction abbreviation for topical or thematic subject balloons; 2: Brunei Darussalam, country code as used by UPU.
B N A: British North America (Canada, Newfoundland, etc.).
BNA: British North Africa, WWII.
British North Africa Force.
 British North America Philatelic Society.
B. N. F. Castellorizo: Base Navale Francaise overprint on stamps of French Levant; 1920: French occupation of Turkey, Offices in Turkey.
B.N.R.: cinderella, Belarusian National Rada, White Russia, 1920.
B O: 1: consular overprint, SCADTA stamps of Colombia, sold in Bolivia, 1920s; 2: Bolivia, country code as used by UPU.
BOAC: British Overseas Airways Corp.
Board of Education: overprint; 1902-04: Great Britain Official.
Board of Governors: governing body of the US Postal Service: includes nine governors who are appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. The nine then elect a Postmaster General, who becomes a member of the Board. Those ten elect a Deputy Postmaster General who also serves on the Board; review the policies and practices of the Postal Service.
Boardwalk margins: stamps with wide margins: also referred to as Jumbo Stamps.
Boating stamp: US revenue stamp; 1960: required on certificate applications for motorboats of more than 10 horsepower.
B O B: see: Back of the Book.
Bobcat: U.S. Navy code name during WW II for Bora, Bora.
Bobina: (It., Sp.) coil (of stamps).
Bobina de Sêlo: (Port.) Coil stamp.
Bobrof: Russian town in Voronezh Oblast; issued over 150 different local Rural Post stamps (1872-1896, the local post being suppressed at the end of the year 1896), see Zemstvo.
B. O. C.: (Ger.) Bayerische-Osterreichisch Correspondenz postmark; 1840s: Austrian-Bavarian postal treaty offered reduced rates.
Bocairente: local, Spanish civil war, 1937.
Bocas del Toro: Panama; 1903-04: overprint “R de Panama” used in City of Bocas del Toro.
Bochnia: city in former Austrian-occupied Poland, local post overprint, 1918-20.
Bochum: locals, Germany, 1: Express Packet Verkehr Brief, 1886-91; 2: Privat Stadtbrief & Packetbeförderungsanstalt, 1897.
Bockenheim: local, Germany 1890-1900.
Bock, Schneider & Co.: private die match proprietary stamps.
Bod: (Czech.) 1. Dot. 2. Stop. 3. Period. 4. (Dut.) auction (bid).
Bodensee Schiffspost: (Ger.) Lake Constance ship mail.
Body bags: USPS printed plastic envelope whose purpose is to explain why the enclosed mail piece was damaged or delayed.
Boekdruk: (Dut.) typography.
Boers: stamps for use in Pietersburg, South Africa, captured by the British April 9, 1901.
Bogen: (Ger.) sheet (of stamps).
Bogenabklatsch: (Ger.) sheet offset.
Bogenanordnung: (Ger.) plate arrangement.
Bogenecke: (Ger.) corner of sheet (pane).
Bogenfeld: (Ger.) position of a stamp in a sheet.
Bogenförmig: (Ger.) name given to Canadian set of King George V of 1930-31 to differentiate them from previous series; also arched.
Bogenlage: (Ger.) plate position.
Bogenlochung: (Ger.) harrow perforation, full sheet perforated in one operation.
Bogenmitte: (Ger.) center of sheet.
Bogenpack: (Ger.) pack of sheets.
Bogen rand: (Ger.) sheet margin.
Bogensammlung: (Ger.) collection of complete sheets.
Bogensignatur: (Ger.) number in sheet margin.
Bogenwasserzeichen: (Ger.) sheet watermark.
Bogenzähler: (Ger.) sheet serial number.
Bogenzähnung: (Ger.) sheet perforation.
Bogert & Durbin: stamp dealers, issued priced catalogues, New York, 1886.
Boghuchary: Russian town in Voronezh Oblast; issued several local Rural Post stamps (1872-1880, these local post sendings being free from 1873), see Zemstvo.
Bogorodsk: (now Noginsk) Russian town in Moscow Oblast ca. 35 miles E of the city ofMoscow; issued a large number of local Rural Post stamps (1871-1896, the local post being suppressed at the end of the year 1896), see Zemstvo.
Bogota, City of: local stamps, 1889-03, Colombia.
Bogtryk: (Dan.) see Tryk – Bog.
Bogus stamp: make-believe stamps from real places, usually made to defraud; Falschung (Ger.), Emission Faux (Fr.), Emissione Falso (It.), Emision Fantasi (Sp.); see Fantasy stamps, Cinderellas.
Bohemia and Moravia: Czechoslovakia; 1939: Czech provinces declared German protectorate, used overprinted Czech stamps, then stamps inscribed Böhmen and Mähren, 1942-1945: Deutsches Reich and Grossdeutsches Reich issues.
Bohcme et Moravie: (Fr.) Bohemia and Moravia.
Bohemia y Moravia: (Sp.) Bohemia and Moravia.
Bøhmen og Mæhren: (Dan.) Bohemia and Moravia
Böhmen und Mähren: (Ger.) inscription for Czechoslovakia, Bohemia and Moravia.
B O I C: British Occupation of the Italian Colonies.
Boite aux Lettres: (Fr.) letter box.
Boite Mobile: (Fr.) movable mail box at dockside or aboard ship; mid-1800s-World War II: used by ships crossing the English Channel.
Boite Postale: (Fr.) post-office box.
Bøjning: (Dan.) slight crease.
Boju ofu: bogus issue from Burma.
Boka Kotarska (Cataro): Yugoslav province, overprints in Italian and German currency, 1944.
Bokhara: bogus labels for vassal state in Russia, issued in 1886.
Boktryck: (Swed.) letterpress.
Boktrykk: (also Trykking) (Nor.) typography.
Boktrykker: (also Trykker) (Nor.) printer.
Boktrykkeri: (also Trykkeri) (Nor.) printery, printing plant.
Bolaffi (BOL): Bolaffi Specialized Postage Stamp Catalog, Italy and Colonies.
Boletin: (Sp.) magazine, bulletin.
Bolivar: former state of the United States of Colombia; 1863-1904: a department of Colombia.
Bolivar, Sucre Miranda-decreto: overprint of Escuelas Venezuela stamps as validation of non-postage school stamps.
Bolivia: Central South America; currency: 100 centavos = 1 peso boliviano (1963), 100 centavos = 1 boliviano (1987) 1825: became independent, 1863, Mar. 18-Apr. 29, 1863: Sr. Justiniano Garcia carried mails, 1867: No.1, 10 centavos green, first stamps issued, revenues, provisionals and postage dues used as postage, 1886, April 1: joined the UPU, 1924, Dec.: first air mail stamp issued, 1931: first postage due stamp issued, 1939: first semipostal stamp issued.
Bolivia, forged issues: 1: 1868-69 Coat of Arms, Scott 10-14. 2: 1897 Coat of Arms, Scott 54.
Bolivie: (Fr.) Bolivia.
Bolivien: (Dan., Ger.) Bolivia.
Bolivisk: (Dan.) Bolivian
Bolla Della Posta di Sicilia: (It.) stamp of the Post of Sicily; Kingdom of Two Sicilies, Italian States, first stamp, Jan. 1, 1859.
Bolladore: local, Italian liberation, “Co. Nazional di Liberazione,” 1944.
Bollo Postale: (It.) San Marino.
Bolla Della Posta Napolitana: (It.) stamp of the Napolitan Post, Kingdom of Two Sicilies, Jan. 1,1858.
Bollawollabongo: bogus labels, no information on source available.
Bolletta: (It.) San Marino parcel post.
Bollo: (It.) postmark.
Bollo di Ferrovia: (It.) railway postmark.
Bollo di Franchigia: (It.) franchise stamp.
Bollo Straordinaria per le Poste: (It.) extraordinary stamp for the post; Italian State, Tuscany, newspaper tax stamp for foreign publications.
Bollullos del Condado: local, Spanish civil war, Nationalist forces,1936-38.
Bologna Vallescura: (Esperanto) Red Cross cinderella.
Bolschaya Alexandrovka: local, Soviet, German occupation, 1941-42.
Bomba Heads: King Ferdinand II, known as “King Bomba”; 1859: stamps for Kingdom of Two Sicilies featuring King’s portrait with instructions that his royal image could not be marred in any way; a frame-shaped cancel devised to grant his wish.
Bonn: 1: local, Germany, Express-Packet-Verkehr, 1887; 2: Private-Brief-Beförderung Rhenania, 1896-1900.
Bon(ne): (Fr.) good.
Bon(s): (Fr.) coupon(s), ticket(s).
B.O.N.C.: Barred Oval Numerical Canceller, the term for describing the numerical oblits on the postage stamps of the Cape of Good Hope
Bonde: (Fr.) wrapper.
Bond paper: a thin crisp high quality paper with a hard surface; 1862-71: used for early US revenue stamps, proofs and essays.
Bond, Wm. & Co.: private die match proprietary stamps.
Bone: now Annaba, Algeria.
Bonelli’s: stamp of British private telegraph company.
Bongonga: bogus, spoof stamps created for 1936 stamp exhibition.
Bonito: (Sp.) used to describe a stamp in nice condition.
Bon marché: (Fr.) cheap.
Bonny River: Royal Niger Company rubber stamp cancel, on stamps of 1892 Great Britain. Booby head: first Plimpton die (1874) of 10¢ Washington head, which is extremely large.
Book bid: bids entrusted by an absentee bidder to an auctioneer; bids to be executed on behalf of an absentee bidder during the course of the public auction.
Bookgirl, Republic of: product of Artistamp, private label manufacturer.
Booklet: stamp book that contains one or more panes of unused stamps; Markenheftchen (Ger.), Carnet de Timbres (Fr.), Libretto di Francobolli (It.), Cuadernillo de Sellos (Sp.).
Booklet leaf: term for a booklet pane, a page from a booklet containing stamps.
Booklet number singles: booklets with plate numbers on the stamp itself, 1997.
Booklet pane: uncut block of stamps especially printed and cut for use in booklets; 1895: first booklets in Luxembourg.
Bookmark postcards: a narrow postcard, measuring 2 5/8 by 5 5/8, that can also be used as a bookmark.
Boonie Islands: bogus, remote nonexistent place.
Bootheel Postmark: Barbados oval marking, 1863-82, name derives from marks resembling metal studs on men’s shoes.
Bootleg mail: letter carried outside of the normal mail stream; term may have originated when travelers carried letters illegally in their riding boots; carried from overseas, often for missionaries, then franked and deposited in local mail, avoiding the high international rates in the pre-UPU period..
Bophuthatswana: South Africa Homeland State; 1977, Dec. 6: first stamps issued after given autonomy, 1994, Apr. 27: Bophuthatswana ceased to exist.
Bord, an: (Ger.) (on) board.
Bordbriefkasten: (Ger.) paquebot.
Bord: (Fr.) margin, selvage, or border around stamps.
Bord cancel: (Fr.) cachet applied on board (spacecraft, ship, etc.)
Bord de Feuille, BdeF: (Fr.) sheet margin.
Borde: (Sp.) margin, selvage, or border around stamps.
Bordeaux: (Fr.) maroon (color).
Bordeaux issue: Third Republic of France; 1870: provisional government issue of provisional stamps used during Siege of Paris due to lack of supplies from Paris; local, liberation, 1944.
Bordein: Egypt, see: Interpostal seals, 1879-1884.
Bordentown & New York Stage: handstamp used in 1786 on stage mail route between New York and Philadelphia.
Border: the frame or edge of a stamp design.
Border and G’way: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Bordo di foglio: (It.) selvage.
Bordo de hoja: (Sp.) selvage.
Bordpost: (Ger.) ship mail.
Bordpoststempel: (Ger.) cancel on board ship, Zeppelin, etc., pacquebot cancel.
Bordsiegel: (Ger.) cachet on board (spacecraft).
BordSt.: an on-board Zeppelin marking.
Bordure: (Fr.) margin, boder, selvage, gutter.
Boreas, S.S.: Danube Steam Navigation Co. steamship; 1850s: for the lower Danube lines.
Borgå: (Fin.) local post via steamship, Finland late 1890s.
Borge: local, Spanish civil war, Nationalist forces, 1937.
Borisoglyebsk: (now Borisoglebsk) Russian town in Tambov Oblast ca. 260 miles SE of Moscow; issued numerous local Rural Post stamps (1871-1896, the local post being suppressed in 1882), see Zemstvo.
Borneo, North: northeast part of Borneo island, Malay Archipelago, Malaysia; currency: 100 cents = 1 dollar 1881: British North Borneo Company administered country, 1883, June: first stamps issued, 1892: stamps canceled with bars were remaindered in huge quantities, 1895: first postage due stamp, 1912: “British protectorate” overprint on stamps of North Borneo, 1916: first semipostal stamp, 1940: became a British colony along with Labuan, 1942, June: overprinted stamps issued as Japanese Occupation of British Borneo, 1943-44: stamps of Japan issued for use in Borneo, 1945, Dec. 17: first stamps of North Borneo overprinted B.M.A. 1963, Sept. 6: part of Federation of Malaysia, changed name to Sabah.
Borongós: (Hung.) grey (color).
Borovichy: (now Borovichi) Russian town in Novgorod Oblast ca. 160 miles SE of St. Petersburg; issued several local Rural Post stamps (1869-1912), see Zemstvo.
Borresen Local Post: see Drammen – Borresen Local Post.
Borroso: (Sp.) blurred, roughly printed.
Börse: (Ger.) bourse; such as a stamp show, where stamps are bought, sold or exchanged.
Boscawen: New Hampshire, Postmaster’s issue, 1846.
Bosna: (Czech.) Bosnia.
Bosna-Hercegovina: (Czech.) Bosnia-Herzegovina.
Bosna i Hercegovina: Jugoslavia overprint on stamps of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bosnia and Herzegovina: Ottoman Empire provinces; Dalmatia/Serbia, formerly Yugoslavia; currency: 100 novcica (neukreuzer) = 1 florin (gulder), 100 heller = 1 krone (1900) 1850s: postal service operated using Turkish stamps, 1878: military posts operated in area, Austrian protection, 1879, Jan.: civilian postal service started, with stamps of Austria and Hungary, 1879, July 1: No.1 ½ novcica black; first stamps issued, 1892, July 1: joined the UPU, 1904: first postage due stamp issued, 1908: Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1910, Oct. 18: first stamps under regime of Austria-Hungary issued, 1914, June 28: Austria-Hungary Archduke Ferdinand assassinated, 1914: first semipostal stamp issued, 1917: became part of Kingdom of Yugoslavia, 1918, Nov.: provincial stamps issued, 1941: stamps issued by occupying powers, Germany and Italy, 1992, Oct. 26: stamps of Yugoslavia surcharged, 1992: Proclamation of Independence, with Serb administration, currency: 100 paras = 1 dinar, 100 pfennig = 1 mark (1996) 1993-post: Croat and Serb administration, 1993, Jan. 26: rejoined the UPU, 1993-95: “Republika Bosna I Hercegovina” inscription for Muslim government in Sarajevo, 1995: Dayton Peace Accord divided nation between Croats, Muslims and the Serbs, 1997, Sep. 14: first postal tax stamp.
Bosnia and Herzegovina, forged issues: 1: 1900 Coat of Arms, Scott 11-21. 2: 1900 Coat of Arms, Scott 22-24. 3: 1906 Emperor Franz Josef, Scott 45. 4: 1912 Jaice, Scott 62. 5: 1912 Konjica, Scott 63. 6: 1912 Vishegrad, Scott 64. 7: 1913 girl, newspaper stamps, Scott P1-P4.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (Herceg Bosna): Croat Administration in Mostar: currency: 100 paras = 1 dinar (1993), 100 lipa = 1 kuna (1994), 100 pfennig = 1 mark (1998) 1993, May 12: first stamp, 1999, Nov. 22: last issue.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (Republika Srpska): Serb Administration in Banja Luca currency: 100 paras = 1 dinar, 100 pfenning = 1 mark (1998) 1992, Oct. 26: first stamps.
Bosnia Erzegovina: (It.) Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bosnie et Herzégovine: (Fr.) Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bosnien: (Dan.) Bosnia.
Bosnien-Hercegovina: overprint on stamps of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Yugoslavia, 1918.
Bosnien i Herzegowina: inscriptions on Bosnia and Herzegovina stamp, 1906-12.
Bosnien und Herzegowina: (Ger.) Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bosniensk: (Dan.) Bosnian.
Bostgebiet: Lithuania overprint on stamps of Germany, German occupation, 1916-17.
Boston: Mass.: 1849-51: semi-official local carriers’ stamps; see: Carriers’ stamps.
Boston & Albany R.R. Co.: private parcel delivery serviced Boston & Albany Railroad Co., used stamps, 1880s.
Boston & Bangor Express Co.: private parcel firm serviced Boston, Mass and various towns in Maine; used labels; c1885.
Boston & Gardner Express: private parcel firm serviced Boston, Mass and Gardner, Mass, used a label, year unknown.
Boston & Providence Despatch Express Co.: private parcel firm serviced Mass., Conn., and Rhode Island.; used a label.
Boston counterfeit: the US 2¢ stamp of the 1922 series, look for a large and out-of-proportion “S” in Washington, plus variations in the perforations.
Boston Hartford & Erie R.R. Express: private express serviced stations on the Boston, Hartford & Erie Railroad, used a label; mid-1860.
Boston Hotels Coach Co’s Baggage Express: local baggage firm serviced Boston, Mass.; used a label, year unknown
Boston Independent Express Cop.: serviced, Boston, Mass., used a label, year unknown.
Boston island: bogus label from American Journal of Philately.
Boston, Lowell & Nadhua Railroad Co.’s Express Department: railroad station package delivery serviced the railroad; used a label, year unknown.
Boston Parcel Delivery Co.: private parcel delivery firm serviced Boston, Mass.; used labels, year unknown.
Boston Parcel Post: parcel delivery firm serviced Boston, Mass., used a label; 1848.
Boston Shoe Fair: poster stamp promoting a show in 1939.
Boston Street Car R.P.O.: consisted of seven circuits, 1896.
Boston Tea Party Stamps: nickname for the 1765 Stamp Act stamps even though these stamps had nothing to do with the Boston Tea Party.
Boten: 1: local stamps of Hamburg, term taken from inscription Hamburger Boten, 1861; 2: (Ger.) messenger (postman).
Botenbrief: (Ger.) private courier letter.
Botenmeister: (Ger.) messenger (postmen) supervisor.
Botenordnung: (Ger.) regulations for messengers (postmen).
Botschaft: (Ger.) message.
Botswana: formerly British Bechuanaland Protectorate – Southern Africa; currency: 100 cents = 1 rand, 100 thebe = 1 pula (1976) 1888: overprint on Cape of Good Hope stamps, followed by overprints on British stamps, 1966, Sept. 30-67: “Republic of Botswana” overprint on stamps of Bechuanaland Protectorate; 1966, Sept. 30: No.1 2 ½ cent multicolor; first stamp issued, 1967, Mar.1: first postage due stamp issued, 1968, Jan. 12: joined the UPU; see Bechuanaland Protectorate.
Bottle Mail: first tested by Theophrastus, Greek philosopher, about 300 BC who launched bottles with messages and determined that the Mediterranean Seas’s water came from the Atlantic Ocean.
Bottom: lowest side of anything.
Bouah: Egypt: see: Interpostal seals, 1879-84.
Bou Armado: (Sp.) civil war naval marking for armed trawler.
Bouchir: (Fr.) Bushire.
Boughies: (Fr.) candles; French Colony revenue inscription.
Bought in: auction term for a lot where seller literally bought the lot back against the book and/or floor bidder; an unsold lot.
Boughton’s Express: freight and baggage firm serviced Brooklyn and New York City; used a label, year unknown.
Bousfield & Poole: private die match proprietary stamps.
Boulak: see: Interpostal seals, 1879-84.
Boule de Moulins: sealed zinc balls to carry mail; 1870-71: French attempt to use the River Seine to carry mail in boules from Moulin to Paris when Paris was under siege.
Bounce back: commercial mailers term for undeliverable mail; see padding. commercial mailers term for undeliverable mail; see padding.
Bourg d’Orsans: local provisional, France, 1944.
Bourgueil: local provisional, France, 1944.
Bournemouth and District: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Bournemouth Life Guard: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Bourse: a market place, such as a stamp show, where stamps are bought, sold or exchanged.
Bourse aux Timbres: (Fr.) stamp market.
Boutell & Maynard: private die match proprietary stamps.
Bouton’s Manhattan Express: S. Allan Taylor label.
Bouton’s Manhattan Express: local post serviced Manhattan, N.Y.; used a stamp, year unknown.
Bouton’s Post, Franklin City Despatch Post: U. S. local post, New York, N.Y., 1847.
Bouton’s Post, Manhattan Express: U. S. local post, New York, N.Y., 1847
Bouton’s Post, City Dispatch Post: U. S. local post, New York, N.Y., 1848.
Bouvenkant: (Dut.) top.
Bouvet-märkena (Norge): (Swed.) Bouvet stamps (Norway).
Bouvet Øya: Norway handstamp, about 1970s, as overprint for Bouvet Island, commemorates the visit of British Vice-Admiral Evans to the island in 1934, repudiated by Norwegian government; in 1955 and 1960-70s, South Africa had a survey team land on the island; in 1958, Italian expedition landed on island; covers and cachets exists for all these expeditions.
Bowers & Dunham: private die match proprietary stamps.
Bowery Post-Office: S. Allan Taylor label.
Bowlsby Coupon Essay: stamp with a coupon attached that was to be detached by the postmaster when the stamp was sold; to prevent reuse of stamp; original patent called for tearing away part of the stamps; used on a variation of the 1¢ 1861 Franklin stamp; invented by G. W. Bowlsby.
Boxborough-Oxford: bogus local post, U.S.
Box Cancel: marking within a frame, usually contains a city and date of application.
Boxed marking: marking that is set within a frame, may be handstamp or printed marking in margin of sheet of postage stamps.
Boxer labels: 23 engraved privately printed labels, depicting heavyweight champions of the world; drawn by well-known stamp artist Czeslaw Slania; forgeries exist.
Boxers: a Chinese anti-foreign secret society.
Boxer Uprising, China: see China, Boxer Uprising.
Boxlink: New Zealand Post express delivery.
Bøy: (Nor.) fold.
Boyaca: department of Colombia; 1750-post: Spanish handstamps in use, 1834: forwarding agents cachets known, 1847:US Mail Despatch Agency used stamps of USA with red grid cancel, 1899: first provincial stamps, 1902-04: stamps of Colombia.
Boyce’s City Express Post: U. S. local post, New York, N.Y., 1852.
Boycott British Goods: inscription on propaganda labels, India.
Boyd’s City Express: U. S. local post, New York, N.Y., 1844-67.
Boyd’s City Dispatch: U. S. local post, New York, N.Y. 1874-77, change in name.
Boyd’s Dispatch: U. S. local post, New York, N.Y. 1878-82, change in name.
Boyd’s City Post: U. S. local post, New York, N.Y. envelopes, 1864-78.
Boy Scout issue: Boy Scout Association national and international jamboree commemoration of event by host nation, also used to commemorate the boy scouts.
Boys in Blue: inscription on Hawaiian post cards; used for prestamped cards given to servicemen leaving for the Spanish- American War zone.
Bozze: (It.) proof.
Bozzetto: (It.) design, artwork printed portion of a stamp, as distinguished from the surrounding margin of blank paper.
B P: 1: booklet pane; 2: Bundespost (Germany Federal Post).
B P A: 1: British Philatelic Association; 2: Bahnpostamt (Ger.) railway post office.
B P C: Belgian military postmark, Bureau de Poste de Campagne.
BPCV.P.K.: (Fr./Flem.) Belgian military postmark, Bureau de Poste de Campagne, veld Post Kantoor.
“B” Perforator: purchased May 28, 1862, used for stamp sheets too narrow for the “A” perforator, used for small stamp sheets since the line of holes was only 12 inches long.
B P F: British Philatelic Federation, Great Britain.
“Bpitish”: overprint variety on British East Africa overprints.
B P O: 1: British Post Office. 2: Base Army Post office, military postal facility to separate bulk mail.
B press: a three-color Intaglio Giori webfed combination press used by the BEP starting about 1976; officially called Press 701.
Br, br’n: (Ger.) catalog abbreviation for brown (braun) overprint or surcharge.
BR: Brazil, country code as used by UPU.
B R: overprint, indicating consular stamp sold in Brazil, 1920s: on SCADTA Colombia stamps.
B. R. A.: overprint, British Railway Administration late letter fee; 1901: on stamps of China during Boxer rebellion.
BRA: international postal code for Brazil.
Brac, Brac Franco: island in the Adriatic Sea; stamps of Jugoslavia overprint; 1943: stamps of Yugoslavia unauthorized overprint by Germany, 1944, May: charity stamps printed when occupied by Germany, never issued.
Bradbury, Wilkinson & Co. Ltd.: British stamp printing firm.
Bradbury Wilkinson Co.: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Bradford & Co.’s Express: local parcel firm serviced Boston and Plymouth, Mass., used labels; c 1880s.
Bradford Insurance Co.: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Bradway’s Despatch: U.S. local post, Millville, N.J., between Philadelphia and Millville, 1857.
Brady & Co. : U.S. local post, New York, N.Y., 1857.
Brady & Co. Chicago Penny Post: U.S. local post, Chicago, Ill., about 1860.
Braekstad & Co.: private local post at Trondhejm (Drontheim), Norway, Nov. 1865.
Brainard & Co.: U.S. local post, New York, N.Y., 1844.
Brake Shoe: a variety found on the 11¢ Caboose stamp of the Transportation coil series; appears as a semi-circular line that follows the outside curve of the front wheel.
Branca Bros. (Fernet Branca): inscription on Medicine stamp; see Private die proprietary stamps.
Branch: name given to a post office that is a subsidiary of the main post office.
Branch Post Office: 1: local handstamp, New York, N.Y., 1847. 2: In U.S. a subsidiary postal station located outside corporate limits of the city to which attached.
Branco: (Port.) white (color).
Branded stamps: another term for perfins, stamps perforated with initials or designs.
Brandenburg: local, Germany, Stadtbrief-Beförderung Courier, 1896-1900.
Brandkastzegels: (Neth.) Marine Insurance stamps.
Brandreth, B.: inscription on Medicine stamp; see Private die proprietary stamps.
Branford Wool: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Brasil: (Nor., Port., Sp.) Brazil.
Brasile: (It.) Brazil.
Brasilien: (Ger., Swed.) Brazil.
Brasilsk: (Nor., Swed.) Brazilian.
Brasshat: U.S. Navy code name during WW II for Amphibious Training Group, SW Pacific.
Bratislava: formerly Pressburg, Czechoslovakia.
Brattleboro: Vermont, US postmaster’s provisional stamps, 1846.
Braun: (Ger.) brown, coffee or chocolate (color).
Braunschweig: (Ger.) Brunswick, German State, also known as Brunswick.
Brazil: North and East Coast, South America; official name of postal administration: Empresa Brasileira de Correios e Telégrafos currency: 100 centavos = 1 cruzeiro (1942), 100 centavos = 1 cruzado (1986), 100 centavos = 1 cruzeiro (1990) 1798, Jan. 20: Royal postal service started between Portugal and Brazil, 1822: Empire of Brazil declared independence, 1843, Aug. 1: No.1, 30 reis black; first stamps, the “Bull’s Eye” issue, 1851: British Royal Mail took over control, British and French markings used, 1860: stamps of France used with anchor cancel, 1866-74: stamps of Britain used at ports, 1877, July 1: joined the UPU, 1889: first postage due, newspaper stamp issued, 1890: issues of the Republic of Brazil, 1900: first commemorative stamp issued, 1906: first official stamp issued, 1927, Dec. 8: first air mail stamp, 1928: first air mail stamp issued, 1934, Sept. 16: first semipostal stamp issued.
Brazil: 1: local airmail, ETA, 1920s; 2: Colombian Airline Postal Service, SCADTA, 1921-23. 3: local airmail, Syndicato Condor, 1927; 4: local airmail, Varig, 1920s. 5: (Hung.) Brazil.
Brazil, forged issues: 1: 1894-97 Sugarloaf Mountain, Scott 112. 2: 1889 postage due, Scott J4.
Brazília: (Hung.) Brazilian.
Brazílie: (Czech.) Brazil.
Brazilien: (Dan.) Brazil.
Brazilik: (Dan.) Brazilian.
Brazil Mail Steamship Company: started service Jan. 1866, subsidized by the American government which required it to carry mail.
Brazilsk: (Dan.) Brazilian.
Brazilsky: (Czech.) Brazilian.
Brazowy(o), Brazowawy(o): (Pol.) bronze, bronzish (color).
Brazza: see: Brac.
Breakdown die proofs: see: Schernikow die proofs.
Breast cancer: US non-denominated semi-postal stamp, value 32, 33, 34¢, July 29, 1998.
Brechou, Brecqhou: island off coast of Sark, Great Britain local carriage label, 1969.
Brecon & Merthyr Railway: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Breedgerand, Breedrandig: (Neth.) large margins.
Bree’s Express: private mail and parcel firm serviced routes of the Morris and Essex Railroad and Sussex Railroad to northern N.J. and New York City; used a label; 1950s.
Bréfhiršing: (Ice.) general name for smallest Iceland post offices.
Breit: (Ger.) wide, large.
Brefmärke: (Fin.) “letter stamp” used on steamships, carrying mail, local post serving Finnish cities, late 1800s.
Breitemarke: (Ger.) oversized, wide stamp.
Breitenausdehnung: (Ger.) with wide (broad) margins.
Breitrandig: (Ger.) wide margins.
Breiz: bogus labels for French province.
Brekk: (Nor.) crease.
Breme: (Fr.) Bremen.
Bremen: German State; located in northwestern Germany; 1784: Thurn and Taxis had office in Bremen, 1810: Bremen annexed to French Empire, 1813: Bremen became a Free City again, 1855, Apr. 10: No.1, 3 grote blue; first stamps, 1868, Jan. 1: stamps of the German Confederation, 1870: became part of the German Empire, 1872, Jan.: German stamps issued.
Bremen: locals Germany, 1: Briefbeförderung Hammonia, 1886-87; 2: Packetfahrt Bremen, 1900; 3; Privat-Briefbeförderungs-Anstalt, 1896-1900.
Brésil: (Fr.) Brazil.
Bresil Calais: (Fr.) border entry date stamp from Brazil to Calais, France.
Bresilien: (Ger.) Brazil.
Breslau: now known as Wroclaw, Poland.
Breslau: locals, Germany; 1: Breslauer Packetfahrt Gesellschaft, 1896-1906; 2: Breslauer Stadtpost Courier, 1896-1900; 3; Breslauer Transport-Bureau, 1890-94; 4: Briefbeförderung Hammonia, 1886-87; 5: Dientsmanns-Institut, 1867; 6: Hansa-Zeitungsspedition und Incasso, 1900; 7: Neue Breslauer Expres-Packet-Brieförderung, 1886-87; 8: Privat-Stadtbrief-Brieförderung Hansa, 1893-1900; 9: Stadtbriefbeförderung-Neue Stadtpost, 1896-1900.
Bretagne: bogus issue.
Brett: (Nor.) crease, fold.
Brev: (Dan., Nor., Swed.) postage stamp on cover.
Brevbärare: (Swed.) mail man, mail carrier, post man.
Brevbudsauktion: (Dan.) mail bid sale.
Brevframsida: (Swed.) cover front (only).
Brevklip: (Dan.) postage stamp(s) on a piece of paper or envelope.
Brevklipp: (Swed.) postage stamp(s) on paper clipping.
Brevkort: (Dan., Nor., Swed.) postal card.
Brevkort, Dubbelt (med Betalt Svar): (Swed.) doubled Postal Card (with the “Reply Paid” portion).
Brevkort dubbla: (Dan. Nor., Swed.) doubled postcard.
Brevlåda: (Swed.) letter box, mail box, mail drop, post box; see Postbox.
Brev med innehål: (Swed.) cover with enclosure.
Brevsamlingar: (Swed.) cover collections.
Brevstykke: (Dan., Nor.) postage stamp(s) on a piece of paper or envelope.
Brevstycke: (Swed.) postage stamp(s) on a piece of paper or envelope.
Brev till Utlandet: (Swed.) covers addressed to foreign destinations..
Brewer & Co.’s Express: local parcel firm serviced Boston and Charlestown, Mass, used a label; 1800s
Brezen: (Czech.) March (month).
Brf: brief, envelope, cover.
Br. Fr.: (Fr.) Brigades Frontieres; inscription on Swiss soldier stamp from a French-speaking unit.
Brick’s Express: local parcel firm serviced Boston, Mass. and part of Maine; used a label, year unknown.
Bridge: the tiny piece of paper that holds stamp together in a perforated multiple before they are torn apart.
Bridge perforation: the portion of paper between perforation holes that extends between adjoining stamps.
Bridge postmark: circular postmark with two lines across the center containing date, known as a “bridge.”
Bridgeville, Al. Paid 5: see: Confederate Postmasters’ Provisionals.
Bridgeville: US Alabama, Confederate postmaster’s provisional, 1861.
Brief: 1. (Dut., Ger.) letter, envelope, cover. 2. (Neth.) cover.
Briefbeförderung Deutscher Herold: local post, Frankfurt am Oder, Germany, 1886-1900.
Briefbestellung: local, Duisberg, Germany, 1896-1900.
Briefbestellung Kraus: local, Dusseldorf, Germany, 1895-1900
Briefbewertung: (Ger.) cover pricing.
Briefbogen: (Ger.) letter sheet.
Briefdatum: (Ger.) date of letter.
Briefgebühr: (Ger.) letter postage.
Briefhülle: (Ger.) envelope.
Briefkaart: (Dut.) postcard.
Briefkarte: (Ger.) letter card.
Briefkasten: (Ger.) mail box.
Briefkuvert: (Ger.) envelope.
Briefmarke: (Ger.) postage stamp.
Briefmarken auf Briefm.: (Ger.) stamp on stamps thematic
Briefmarkenauktion: (Ger.) stamp auction.
Briefmarkenausstellung: (Ger.) postage stamp exhibition.
Briefmarkenbörse: (Ger.) postage stamp bourse.
Briefmarkengeld: (Ger.) encased postage stamp used by Austria in July 1923.
Briefmarkenhändler: (Ger.) stamp dealer.
Briefmarkenkunde: (Ger.) knowledge of stamps.
Briefmarkenkünstler: (Ger.) designer or engraver of postage stamps.
Briefmarkenpaket: (Ger.) package of stamps.
Briefmarkenprüfer: (Ger.) stamp expert.
Briefmarkensammler: (Ger.) stamp collector.
Briefmarkensammlung: (Ger.) collection lot; an auction lot comprising of a mounted or unmounted country, topical, etc. collection, which normally is viewed previous to bidding.
Briefomslag: (Dut.) envelope.
Briefpost: (Ger.) letter post.
Briefpreis: (Ger.) price of cover.
Briefrückseite: (Ger.) back of cover.
Briefsammlung: (Ger.) collection of covers.
Briefstück: (Ger.) cut square of cover or post card, on piece.
Briefstuk: (Neth.) postage stamp(s) on a piece of paper or envelope.
Brieftaubepost: (Ger.) pigeon mail.
Briefträger: (Ger.) letter carrier.
Briefumschlag: (Ger.) cover.
Briefumschlag: (Ger.) envelope or cover.
Briefvoorzijde: (Neth.) cover front.
Briefvorderseite: (Ger.) cover front.
Brigata Garibaldi: local, Italian liberation, 1944.
Brigg’s Despatch: U.S. local post, Philadelphia, Pa., 1847-48.
Brighton Private P.S.: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Brillante: (Sp.) shiny, glossy, surfaced paper.
BRINDIV: British Indian Division, Indian Army, 1984.
Brink’s Chicago City Express: local parcel express firm serviced Chicago area; used a corner card and stamps; 1859-1929.
Brinkerhoff: Brinkerhoff Vending Machine Co.: sold stamps in imperforate condition and also added private perforation to fit their machine.
Brinkerhoff Company: Brinkerhoff Company: Sedalia, Mo., Clinton, Iowa manufacturers of stamp vending machines, 1906-12, distinct perforation.
Brique: (Fr.) brick red (color).
Brisé: (Fr.) broken.
Bristol Emergency Post: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Bristol Omnibus Co.: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Brisure: (Fr.) break.
Brit: (Hung.) British.
Britanic: (Rom.) British (adj.).
Britain: see: Great Britain.
Britain Strike Post: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Brittania Letter Service: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Britannia type: name given to stamp design showing the full face of Britannia: used for early stamps of Barbados, Mauritius and Trinidad, 1851-83.
Britannien: (Ger.) Britain.
Britannique: (Fr.) British.
Brit Észak-Borneo: (Hung.) British North Borneo.
Brit Guyana: (Hung.) British Guiana (Guyana).
Brit Honduras: (Hung.) British Honduras (Belize).
Brit Indiai Óceáni Területek(Hung.) British Indian Ocean Territories.
Britisch Guiana: (Ger.) British Guiana.
Britisch Honduras: (Ger.) British Honduras.
Britisch Kolumbia undae Vancouverinsel: (Ger.) British Columbia and Vancouver Island.
Britische Marken im Ausland Verwendet: (Ger.) British stamps used abroad.
Britisch Ostafrika: (Ger.) British East Africa.
Britische Post auf den Bahamas: (Ger.) British post office in the Bahamas.
Britische Post auf den Insel Ionische: (Ger.) British post office in the Ionian Islands.
Britische Post auf den Seychellen: (Ger.) British post office in the Seychelles.
Britische Post in Ägypten: (Ger.) British post office in Egypt.
Britische Post in Bermudainseln:/ (Ger.) British post office in Bermuda.
Britische Post in Hongkong: (Ger.) British post office in Hong Kong.
Britische Post in Japan: (Ger.) British post office in Japan.
Britische Post in Jamaika: (Ger.) British post office in the Jamaica.
Britische Post in Kanada: (Ger.) British post office in Canada.
Britische Post in Neufundland: (Ger.) British post office in Newfoundland.
Britische Post in Neuseeländ: (Ger.) British post office in New Zealand.
Britische Post in Südafrika: (Ger.) British post office in South Africa.
Britische Post in Zypern: (Ger.) British post office in Cyprus.
Britische Salomoninseln: (Ger.) British Solomon Islands.
Britisches Weltreich: (Ger.) British Empire.
British: overprint variety (should be British) on British East Africa overprints.
British Air Ferries: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
British American Bank Note Company: stamp printers of Canadian stamps 1868-97, 1930-34.
British and American Express Company: private mail and parcel firm serviced northeastern U.S. and Canadian border towns; used a label; 1850s.
British & Irish Magnetic Telegraph Co.: stamp of British private telegraph company.
British Antarctic Territory: formerly part of Falkland Island Dependency; 1962: became separate colony, 1963, Feb.1: first stamps as part of British Commonwealth omnibus issues.
British Australian Colonies: 1891, Oct.1: became affiliated with the UPU, 1907, Oct.1: changed UPU affiliation to British Colonies and Possessions.
British Bechuanaland: see Bechuanaland, British.
British Central Africa (B.C.A.): former British territory in Africa; 1891-95: stamps of Rhodesia overprinted “B.C.A,” 1895-1907: inscription of British Central Africa Protectorate, 1908: name changed and stamps used of Nyasaland Protectorate, which became independent as the Republic of Malawi..
British Central Africa (B.C.A.): 1891-95: stamps of Rhodesia overprinted “B.C.A,” 1895-1907: inscription of British Central Africa Protectorate.
British Central Africa Protectorate: see: British Central Africa.
British closed mail: prepaid mail for foreign countries sent through the British postal system, 1849.
British colonial (stamp): term used for issues of Great Britain, Dominions, Colonies, Protectorates and Mandated territories of Great Britain.
British Colonies and Possessions, Oriental Africa: 1895, Dec.1: joined the UPU, 1901, Apr.1: changed UPU affiliation to Oriental Africa and Uganda.
British Columbia: Pacific coast of Canada; 1860: first stamp as British crown colony, 1865, Nov.1: first separate stamps when united with Vancouver Island as British Columbia, 1866, Nov.19: some stamps surcharged as British Columbia, 1871, July 20: became a Canadian province, see: Canada.
British Columbia: local, Canada; Dietz and Nelson Express, 1862-71.
British Columbia and Vancouver Island: Canadian province; 1847: first post office at Victoria, 1860: external communications were via U.S. expresses, such as Wells Fargo, US stamps sold, 1865: superseded by separate issues, 1866; united as part of Canadian Confederation, 1871, July 20: became a Canadian province as part of British Columbia, see: Canada.
British Consular Mail: stamps issued 1884-87 for consular postal service; see: Madagascar, Great Britain Consulate.
British Durduras: bogus, British Colonial Royal Wedding frames from book Surreal Stamps and Unreal Stickers.
British East Africa: part of East Africa, currently Kenya; currency: 16 annas = 1 rupee 1888: firm received charter as Imperial British East Africa Company, 1890, May 23: No.1, ½ anna lilac; “British East Africa Company” overprint on stamps of Britain, 1890, Oct.: stamps inscribed and handstamp of “British East Africa Company,” 1895: under direct control of British administration, 1895-97: overprint on stamps of India, 1896-1903: stamps inscribed “British East Africa Protectorate,” 1895-97: overprint “British East Africa” on stamps of Zanzibar, 1903: area changed and stamps inscribed “East Africa and Uganda Protectorate,” 1903: East Africa and Uganda stamps used, 1963, Dec. 12: named Kenya.
British East Africa Company: 1890-94: overprint on stamps of Great Britain.
British East Africa, forged issue: 1890-94 light and liberty, Scott 29.
British East Africa Protectorate: 1896-1903: inscription on stamps of Great Britain.
British European Airways: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
British Flying Post Office: label from Argentina for Rowland Hill centenary.
British Forces, Egypt: effective 1932-1941; 1932, Nov.1-Feb. 29, 1936: seals valid as stamps issued to British forces and their families with a special postage rate for mail to Great Britain, applied to the back of mail, 1936-Apr.1943: Army Post inscription used.
British Guiagu: bogus, British Colonial Royal Wedding frames from book Surreal Stamps and Unreal Stickers.
British Guiana: Central America, on northeast coast of South America; currency: 100 cents = 1 dollar 1850, July 1: first stamps as British Crown Colony, called “cotton reels,” 1851: No.1, 2 cents pale blue, 1856: crowned circle “PAID” mark used, 1858-60: stamps of Britain used on mail to Britain, 1875: first official stamp issued, 1918: first semipostal, War Tax stamps issued, 1940: first postage due stamp issued, 1966, May 26: became an independent republic and renamed Guyana.
British Guiana 1¢ magenta: term used for the unique 1856 1¢ magenta stamp, also known as The Penny Magenta.
British Honduras: now Belize – Central America; currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling, 100 cents = 1 dollar (1888) 1786: letters from Jamaica known, 1798: under British authority, 1800: “Belize” handstamp used on foreign mail, 1857: London branch Post office opened, 1858-60: stamps of Great Britain used, 1862: British colony administered from Jamaica, 1866, Jan.: No.1, 1 penny blue; first definitive issue, 1871: declared Crown Colony, 1884: became independent colony, 1866, Jan.: first stamps, 1923: first postage due stamp issued, 1932: first War Tax stamp issued, 1939: Guatemala claimed area in its map issue (Sc.296), 1960: became a Crown Colony, 1973: changed name to Belize, 1984, Jan. 1: became self-governing.
British Honduras: inscription, Deafforestation, unissued Great Britain cinderella by David Horry, 2001.
British Honduras: local; Caye Service, 1895.
British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT): British-owned islands in the Indian Ocean; currency: 100 cents = 1 rupee, 100 pence = 1 pound (1990) 1965, Nov. 8: established as a Crown Colony, 1968-pre: stamps of Mauritius or Seychelles valid, 1968, Jan. 17: first stamps issued, 1968: No.1, 5 cent multicolor; stamps of Seychelles overprinted B.I.O.T, 1969: mails have been carried by m.v. Nordvaer, with a temporary post office, 1976: mail is entirely military, 1976, June 23: islands Aldabra, Farquhar and Des Roches islands transferred to Seychelles and Seychelles stamps used, 1980: name changed to Zil Eloigne Sesel then to Zil Elevagne Sesel.
British Inland Mail: stamps issued at Antananarivo (Madagascar); 1895, Jan.-Sept.: French fleet blockade; mail carried by runner to Vatomandry.
British Levant: British post offices in the Turkish Empire; 1832: British embassy mail started, 1854, Nov.: Constantinople opened an Army post office, 1854: British stamps used, 1885, Apr. 1: first British stamps issued with surcharge, 1905: stamps of Great Britain overprinted “Levant,” 1914, Sept. 30: post offices closed, 1916: Levant stamps for Salonica, 1918-20: British Army post office in Constantinople opened, 1921: stamp issued British occupation of part of the old Ottoman Empire, 1920-23: overprinted stamps used.
British Military Administration of Malaya: 1945, Oct. 19: first stamps issued, 1945-48: Straits Settlements stamps overprinted BMA Malaya used, 1948-post: states issued their own stamps, but BMA overprint was used to 1951.
British Military Administration of North Borneo: 1945, Dec. 17: first stamps of North Borneo overprinted B.M.A.
British Monmon Islands: bogus, British Colonial Royal Wedding frames from book Surreal Stamps and Unreal Stickers.
British Naiana: bogus, British Colonial Royal Wedding frames from book Surreal Stamps and Unreal Stickers.
British New Guinea: former name for Papua; 1883, Apr. 4: annexed by Queensland, 1888, Sep. 4: post offices opened at Port Moresby and Samarai, 1888: cancels were barred ovals with letters NG or BNG, along with a dated stamp, 1901, July 1-05: first stamps issued, 1902: transferred to Australia, 1906, Sep. 1: name changed to Territory of Papua, 1907: definitive issue, 1949: Papua and New Guinea, 1972: Papua New Guinea, 1975: independence.
British Occupation: 1918, Dec. – July 1920: overprint on stamps of Russia, “Batum” overprint, occupied by British Forces.
British Occupation of Batum: overprint on stamps of Batum; see Batum
British Occupation of Italian East Africa: 1941, Jan.: British forces invaded former Italian colony, along with Eritrea, Somalia and most of Ethiopia; used regular British stamps, 1942, Mar. 2: British stamps overprinted “M.E.F.” (Middle East Forces) used in Eritrea, 1942, Mar. 23: Ethiopian postal services resumed operations, 1942, Apr. 13: British stamps overprinted “E.A.F. (East African Forces) used in Somalia, 1948, May 27: British stamps overprinted “B.M.A. Eritrea and “B.M.A. Somalia” (British Military Administration), 1950, Jan-Feb.: Military administration ended; new stamps overprinted “B.A. Eritrea” and “B.A. Somalia” issued, 1950, Mar. 31: Somalia turned over to a United Nations Trusteeship, stamps demonetized, 1952, Sep. 15: Eritrea annexed to Ethiopia.
British Occupation of Libya: 1943: British forces occupied Cyrenaica and Tripolitania; stamps of Britain overprinted “M.E.F.” (Middle East Forces), 1948, July 1: British stamps overprinted “B.M.A. Tripolitania” (British Military Administration), 1949, June 1: Cyrenaica established as an autonomous station, 1950, Jan. 16: New stamps depicting King Idris, 1950, Feb. 6: Military Administration ended; new stamps overprinted “B.A. Tripolitania,” 1951, Dec. 24: Kingdom of Libya formed, included Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan-Ghadames.
British Offices in Beirut: 1873-1914: stamps of Great Britain, British Levant, 1906, July 2: provisional issued.
British Offices in China; various cities; 1844: consular treaty port post offices opened, 1862-post: all mail canceled B62 in Hong Kong, 1862-1917: first stamps, Hong Kong, 1917: first overprinted stamps of Hong Kong, “China,” 1922, Nov. 30: all offices were closed except for Wei-hai-wei, 1930, Oct. 1: stamps withdrawn, handed back to China. British Offices in Crete: British zone of joint administration includes France, Italy, Russia; 1898-1900: stamps issued until establishment of autonomous government.
British Offices in Eastern Arabia: 1963, Mar.30: first British agency post office opened, 1963, Mar.30-March 29, 1964: used stamps of British postal administration in Eastern Arabia, 1967, Jan.1: local service starts.
British Offices in Japan: 1859-Dec.1879: Yokohama, used stamps of Hong Kong from 1864, 1860-Dec.1879: Nagasaki, used stamps of Hong Kong from 1866, 1869-Dec.: (Hyogo), used stamps of Hong Kong from 1876.
British Offices in Morocco: 1857-86: used stamps of Great Britain, postmarked at Gibraltar, 1886-1907: placed under control of Gibraltar, 1898-1906: used stamps of Gibraltar, and Great Britain, 1907-56: used stamps of Great Britain, overprinted, currency surcharge in Spanish, plus separate issues used in Spanish Zone, French Zone and Tangier, 1917-Jan. 8, 1938: used stamps of Great Britain surcharged in French, 1927-pre: Tangier used stamps of Great Britain without overprints.
British Offices in the Turkish Empire: 1885-pre: British stamps used, 1885: British stamps overprinted “Levant” or surcharged in Turkish currency, 1914, Oct. 1: British post offices closed, 1919, Mar.: British post offices reopened, 1923, Sep. 27: British post offices closed. see: British Levant.
British Philatelic Federation: formed 1976 as umbrella federation for British philatelic societies, closed 1993; see Association of British Philatelic Societies
British postal administration in Eastern Arabia: stamps of Great Britain surcharged in Indian currency, 1948, Apr.1-Jan. 6, 1961: Dubai, 1948, Apr.1-April 29, 1966: Muscat, 1950-57: Qatar, 1960, Dec.-March 29, 1964: Abu Dhabi, 1951, 1953: Kuwait, Bahrain. British postal strike: started Jan. 20, 1971, ended March 8, 1971: involved 220,000 postal employees: it was legal for private firms to deliver mail and many made their own stamp labels for the occasion.
British Postal Strike: On Jan. 20, 1971, British postal workers started a seven-week strike; private delivery services created for local delivery to bringing mail to Europe for remailing, strike ended Mar. 8, 1971.
British Post Office: British government took over the American colonial postal system, 1707.
British Post Office Act of 1657: listed international towns of commercial importance.
British Post Offices in Morocco: currency: 40 paras = 1 piaster, 12 pence = 1 shilling (1905) 1857-86: used stamps of Great Britain, postmarked at Gibraltar, 1886-1907: placed under control of Gibraltar, 1898: No.1, 5 centimos green;(Spanish currency) used stamps of Gibraltar, and Great Britain, 1907: stamps of Great Britain in British currency, 1907-56: used stamps of Great Britain, overprinted, currency surcharge in Spanish, plus separate issues used in Spanish Zone, French Zone and Tangier, 1917-Jan. 8, 1938: used stamps of Great Britain surcharged in French, 1927-pre: Tangier used stamps of Great Britain without overprints.
British Post Offices in the Turkish Empire: currency: 40 paras = 1 piaster, 12 pence = 1 shilling (1905) 1854, Nov: British Army P.O. as sorting and forwarding office for forces in Crimea, 1885, April 1: No. 1, 40 paras lilac; British stamps overprinted “Levant” or surcharged in Turkish currency, 1919, Mar.-1922: Smyrna post office reopened with unoverprinted stamps, 1923, Sep. 27: British post offices closed. see British Levant.
British Protectorate Oil Rivers: Niger Coast Protectorate; 1892-93: overprint on stamps of Great Britain.
British Rail Parcels LS: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
British railway letter stamps: used from 1891-1941; in 1920, rate increased from 2d to 3d bringing causing surcharges on current inventory.
British Solomon Islands: British protectorate in the West Pacific Ocean; 1893: southern islands, British territory, 1896: New South Wales first stamps, postmarked Sydney, 1907, Feb. 14: first stamps as British Protectorate, postage to Australia and then stamps of New South Wales necessary, 1907, Sept. 3: joined the UPU, 1940, Sept.1: first postage due stamp issued, 1942: Japanese invasion, post offices closed, 1943, July: post office opened on Guadalcanal, 1946: Guadalcanal closed, replaced by Honiara, 1975: name changed from British Solomon Islands to Solomon Islands, 1978, July 7: became independent, 1982, May 3: first semipostal stamp issued,
British Somaliland: 1903: overprint on stamps of India; see: Somaliland Protectorate.
British South Africa Company: Rhodesia; currency: 12 pence = 1 shilling, 20 shillings = 1 pound 1841-53: Livingston sent mail to Great Britain, via casual caravans or ships, 1875-76: mail send from Transvaal, 1888-92: stamps of British Bechuanaland used, 1888, Aug.: mail sent from Tati in Bechuanaland Protectorate, 1890, Jan. 2: first stamps for British South Africa Company, 1890: horse post established, 1898: railway from Beira to Umtali, 1889: administered by the British South Africa Company, 1909, Apr. 15: first stamps overprinted with name “Rhodesia,” 1923: area divided and portion became British Crown Colony of Rhodesia. 1924: remaining territory formed Protectorate of Northen Rhodesia, 1924: remainders of issues 1892-1910 sold to stamp dealers, 1953, Sep.3: Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, see Rhodesia, Rhodesia and Nyasaland.
British Telegraph Co.: stamp of British private telegraph company.
British Vice Consulate Antananarivo: 1884-86: Madagascar; see: British Consular Mail.
British Virgin Islands: islands in the West Indies, southeast of Puerto Rico; currency: 12 pence = 1 dollar, 20 shillings = 1 pound, 100 cents = 1 U.S. dollar (1951), 100 cents = 1 dollar (1962) 1666-pre: under Dutch control, then to Britain, 1858: British stamps used at Tortola on overseas mail, 1866: Virgin Islands stamps issued under British control, 1890-1956: Leeward Island stamps used with those of BVI, 1916: War Tax stamp issued, 1917-pre: western portion under Danish rule, then U.S. rule, 1917: first semipostal stamp issued, 1935: first pictorial stamp issued, 1956: became a separate Crown Colony, 1967: new constitution, became an Associated State under Britain, 1968, Jan. 2: first “British Virgin Islands” stamp issued to avoid confusion with US Virgin Islands.
British Zone: plus American and Russian occupying powers; 1946-48: one issue, overprinted with pattern of posthorns, for occupation of Germany, 1948-49: “Deutsche Post” inscription used.
Britisk: (Dan., Nor.) British, see Storbritannien
Britská Guyana: (Czech.) British Guiana (Guyana).
Britská Honduras: (Czech.) British Honduras (Belize).
Britská Kolumbia: (Czech.) British Columbia.
Britská Panenské Ostrovy: (Czech.) British Virgin Islands.
Britisk Centralafrika: (Dan.) British Central Africa.
Britiske Salomonøer: (Dan.) British Solomon Islands.
Britiske skibspost: (Dan.) British ship mail (ship post).
Britiske skipspost: (Nor.) British ship mail (ship post).
Britiske Sone: (Nor.) British Zone.
Britiske Zone: (Dan.) British Zone.
Britisk Guiana: (Dan.) British Guiana.
Britisk Honduras: (Dan.) British Honduras.
Britisk Jomfruøerne: (Dan.) British Virgin Islands.
Britisk Jomfruøy : (Nor.) British Virgin Islands.
Britisk Nordborneo: (Dan.) British North borneo.
Britisk Nyassaland: (Dan.) British Nyassaland.
Britisk Østafrika: (Dan.) British East Africa.
Britisk Post i Afrika: (Dan.) British Post Offices in Africa.
Britisk Post i Kina: (Dan.) British Post Offices in China.
Britisk Post i Marokko: (Dan.) British Post Offices in Morocco.
Britisk Post i Øst Afrika: (Dan.) British Post Offices in East Africa.
Britisk Post i Tyrkiet: (Dan.) British Post Offices in the Turkish Empire ( Levant).
Britisk Post i Udlandet: (Dan.) British Post Offices Abroad.
Britisk Salomonøer: (Dan.) British Solomon Islands.
Britisk Somaliland: (Dan.) British Somaliland.
Britsky: (Czech.) British.
Brit Szomália: (Hung.) British Somaliland.
Brittin’s Express: local parcel firm serviced Newark, N.J. and New York City; used labels; 1850s.
Brittisk: (Swed.) British (adj.), see Storbritannien.
Brittiska Burma: (Swed.) British Burma.
Brittiska Centralafrika: (Swed.) British Central Africa.
Brittiska Columbia: (Swed.) British Columbia.
Brittiska Guyana: (Swed.) British Guiana (Guyana).
Brittiska Honduras: (Swed.) British Honduras.
Brittiska Jungfruöarna: (Swed.) British Virgin Islands.
Brittiska Militära Flygpoststämplar (Island): (Swed.) WWII British military Royal Air Force cancellations (Iceland).
Brittiska Nordborneo: (Swed.) British North Borneo.
Brittiska Nyasaland: (Swed.) British Nyasaland.
Brittiska Salomonöarna: (Swed.) British Solomon Islands.
Brittiska Västindien:(Swed.) British West Indies.
Brittiske skeppspost: (Swed.) British ship mail (ship post).
Brittiske Zon: (Swed.) British Zone.
Brittisk militärpost: (Swed.) British field post offices.
Brittisk Militärpost (Island): (Swed.) WWII British military mail (Iceland).
Brittisk Post på Afrika: (Swed.) British Post Offices in Africa.
Brititsk Post på Kina: (Swed.) British Post Offices in China.
Brittisk Post på Marocko: (Swed.) British Post Offices in Morocco.
Brittisk Post på Østafrika: (Swed.) British Post Offices in East Africa.
Brittisk Post på Tyrkiet: (Swed.) British Post Offices in the Turkish Empire (Levant).
Brittisk Post på Udlandet: (Swed.) British Post Offices Abroad.
Brittisk Salomonöer: (Swed.) British Solomon Islands.
B R M: USPS term for business reply mail.
Brno: formerly known as Brunn, Czechoslovakia.
Broadway Postal Service: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Broadway Post Office: U.S. local post, New York, NY, 1848.
Broken circle: printing variety in which a circle that appears on the stamp is defective.
Broken (fractured) gum: final appearance of gum caused by application while paper passes through the gum-fracturing machine, which is used to counteract paper curl.
Broken hat: variety seen on the 2¢ 1893 Columbian issue found in the hat of the knight standing to the left of Columbus. The lines in the hat brim are broken.
Broken Hill: now known as Kabwe, Zambia.
Broken letters: malformed letters in the stamp inscription caused by damage or deterioration in the printing plate or cylinder.
Broken set: an incomplete set of stamps that doesn’t contain all the values.
Broken type: letter in an overprint or surcharge where the face is damaged so that there is no complete impression.
Bromberg: local, Germany, Stadtpost Hansa, 1896-1900; now known as Bydgoszcz, Poland.
Bromide: photo of the artwork reduced to the actual size of the stamp printed on bromide paper.
Bronce: (Sp.) bronze (color).
Bronnytzy: (now Bronnitsy) Russian town in Moscow Oblast ca. 32 miles SW of the city of Moscow; issued several local Rural Post stamps (1868-1905, the local post being suppressed in 1905), see Zemstvo.
Brons: (Swed.) bronze (metallic color).
Bronse: (Nor.) bronze (metallic color).
Bronsefarget: (Nor.) bronze (color).
Bronsgroen: (Neth.) bronze-green (metallic color).
Bronsgrön: (Swed.) bronze-green (metallic color).
Bronsegrønn: (Nor.) bronze-green (metallic color).
Bronson & Forbes City Express Post: U.S. local post, Chicago, Ill. 1855.
Bronz: (Rom.) bronze (metallic color).
Bronzegrøn: (Dan.) bronze-green (metallic color).
Bronzen: (Ger.) bronze (color).
Bronzo: (It.) bronze (color).
Brooklyn City Express Post: U.S. local post, Brooklyn, N.Y., 1855-64.
Brooklyn Independent Carriers: local post of Brooklyn, N.Y., 1846-55.
Brookman: United States based stamp catalogs of U.S., U.N., and Canada.
Brook’s Express: local parcel firm serviced Kingston, Mt. Auburn and Boston, Mass.; used a label; late 1800s
Brotkartenpapier: (Ger.) bread ration ticket paper, used for printing 1919 stamps of Lithuania.
Brown: coffee or chocolate (color).
Brown (E) & Co. : U.S. local post, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1852-65.
Brown & Durling: inscription on Match stamp; see Private die proprietary stamps.
Brown & McGill’s U.S.P.O. Despatch: 1858, Louisville, Ky; see: Carriers’ Stamps.
Brown, C.F.: inscription on Medicine stamp; see Private die proprietary stamps.
Browne’s Easton Despatch Post: U.S. local post, Easton, Pa., 1876 established for philatelic purposes by stamp dealer William P. Browne.
Brownout-franking: 1845-March 1847; U.S. department term for signatures required on mail sent by employees of their department to use the franking privilege.
Brown, Fred Co.: inscription on Medicine stamp; see Private die proprietary stamps.
Brown, John I. & Son: inscription on Medicine stamp; see Private die proprietary stamps.
Brown’s City Post: U.S. local post, New York, N.Y., 1876.
BRU: international postal code for Brunei Darussalam.
Bruch (Spur): (Ger.) crease.
Bruchdruck: (Ger.) surface printing, typography.
Brücke: 1: (Ger.) gutter between two stamps; 2: (Ger.) bridges, as a theme or topic.
Bruges: also known as Brugge, Belgium.
Brugparen: (Neth.) interpanneaux pair.
Brugsbrev: (Dan.) commercial cover.
Brugsmærke(r): (Dan.) definitive issues.
Brugt: (Dan.) used.
Bruin: (Dut.) brown (color).
Bruingeel: (Neth.) brownish-yellow (color).
Bruinlila: (Neth.) brownish-lilac (color).
Bruinrood: (Neth.) brownish-red (color).
Bruksbrev: (Swed.) commercial cover.
Bruksmärken: (Swed.) definitive issues.
Brukt: (Nor.) used, canceled.
Brun: (Dan., Fr., Nor., Rom., Swed.) brown, coffee or chocolate (color).
Brunakt grå: (Swed.) brownish-grey (color).
Brunakt grå-lila grå: (Swed.) brownish – grey-lilac grey (color).
Brunakt lila: (Swed.) brownish-lilac (color).
Brunakt Mörklila: (Swed.) brownish dark violet (color).
Brunakt Olivgrå: (Swed.) brownish olive-grey (color).
Brunakt orange: (Swed.) brownish-orange (color).
Brunakt orangeröd: (Swed.) brownish orange-red (color).
Brunakt röd: (Swed.) brownish red (color).
Brunakt violett: (Swed.) brownish-violet (color).
Brunatny(o): (Pol.) brown (color).
Brun-carmine: (Rom.) carmine-brown (color).
Brun-cenusiu: (Rom.) grey-brown (color).
Brunei: Sultanate of North Borneo under British protection; official name of postal administration: Postal Services Department, Ministry of Communications currency: 100 cents (sen) = 1 Malayan dollar 1888: under British protection, 1895: local post stamps issued for mail to and from Labuan, 1906, Oct.11: No.1, 1 cent violet and black; first stamps were overprints on stamps of Labuan, 1907: Brunei stamps issued, 1942-44: stamps overprinted in Japanese characters during occupation, 1945: British occupation, stamps of North Borneo and Sarawak overprinted B.M.A., 1947: Brunei stamps reappeared, 1971: became a self-government, 1984: became fully independent, 1985, Jan.15: joined the UPU.
Brunei Darussalam: Brunei.
Brunei, Japanese Occupation: see Brunei.
Brunfiolett: (Nor.) brown-violet (color).
Brun-galbui: (Rom.) yellowish-brown (color), see Bistru.
Brungrå: (Nor.) brown-grey (color).
Brun gris: (Fr.) grey-brown (color).
Brungul: (Dan., Nor., Swed.) brownish-yellow (color).
Brunguk: (Nor.) buff (color).
Brun-închis: (Rom.) dark brown, chestnut brown, maroon (color).
Brunkarmin: (Dan., Nor.) brown-carmine (color).
Brunlig: (Dan., Nor.) brownish (color).
Brunligfiolett: (Nor.) brownish-purple (color).
Brunligkarminrød: (Nor.) brownish carmine-red (color).
Brunliglilla: (Dan., Nor.) brownish-lilac (color).
Brunliglillarød: (Dan., Nor.) brownish lilac-red (color).
Brunligoker: (Nor.) brownish-ochre (color).
Brunligokker: (Dan.) brownish-ochre (color).
Brunligoliven: (Dan., Nor.) brownish-olive (color).
Brunligorange: (Dan.) brownish-orange (color).
Brunligoransje: (Nor.) brownish orange (color).
Brunligpurpur: (Dan., Nor.) brownish-purple (color).
Brunligrød: (Dan., Nor.) brownish-red (color).
Brunligviolet: (Dan.) brownish-violet (color).
Brun-lila: (Rom.) lilac-brown (color).
Brunlilla: (Nor.) brown-lilac (color).
Brunn: now known as Brno, Czechoslovakia.
Bruno: (It., Port., Sp.) brown, coffee or chocolate (color).
Brunoker: (Nor.) brown-ochre (color).
Brunokker: (Dan.) brown-ochre (color).
Brun-olive: (Rom.) olive-brown (color).
Brunoliven: (Dan., Nor.) brown-olive (color).
Brunorange: (Dan.) brown-orange (color).
Brunoransje: (Nor.) brown-orange (color).
Brun-portocaliu: (Rom.) orange-brown (color).
Brunpurper: (Dan., Nor.) brown-purple (color).
Brunrød: (Dan., Nor.) brown-red (color).
Brun-roscat: (Rom.) red-brown (color).
Brun rouille: (Fr.) rust (color).
Brunsort: (Dan.) brown-black (color).
Brunsvart: (Nor., Swed.) brown-black (color).
Brunsvil: (Czech.) Brunswick.
Brunswick: German State, also known as Braunschweig; located in Northern Germany; currency: 12 pfennings = 1 gutesgroschen, 30 silber groschen = 24 gutesgroschen = 1 thaler 1852, Jan. 1: first stamps depicting a “Leaping Saxon” horse, 1856: used diamond shape as cancel, 1868, Jan. 1: stamps of the North German Confederation, 1870: became part of the German Empire, 1872, Jan.: German stamps issued.
Brunswick printing: AMG (AM Post) stamps of Germany printed by Westermann of Braunschweig, Germany.
Brunswick Star: name given to a duplex cancel used at Edinburgh, Scotland in 1863-73, name taken from the breast-star in the Hanoverian Order of Brunswick.
Brunviolet: (Dan.) brown-violet (color).
Brunviolett: (Swed.) brown-violet (color).
Brussels, Bruxelles: Belgium precancel; local Courier Provisoire, 1914.
Bruten hörntand: (Swed.) bent (stamp) corner.
Bruttokatalog: (Ger.) priced catalog, subject to discount.
Bruun Local Post: see Christianssund – J. C. Bruun Local Post.
Bruxelles: surcharge precancel, 1929; also known as Brussels, Belgium.
Bryant & Co.s Express: local package delivery firm serviced Boston, Mass and Bangor, Maine; used labels, 1849.
Bryant & Manning’s Express: local post firm serviced Boston, Mass and Bangor, Maine; used a label, 1854.
Bryant & Spear’s Express: local post firm serviced Boston, Mass and Bangor, Maine; used labels, 1850.
Bryant’s Express: local post firm serviced Boston, Mass and Bangor, and Penobscot, Maine; used labels, 1850.
Bryssel: (Fin., Nor.) Brussels, Bruxelles.
Brzeg: (Pol.) selvedge.
Brzeziny: city in German-occupied Russian Poland, local post overprint, 1918-20.
BS: 1: auction abbreviation for boy/girl scout theme; 2: Bahamas, country code as used by UPU.
B/s: auction abbreviation term for Backstamp, see Backstamp.
BSA: British South Africa.
B.S. & Co.: bogus college stamp, S. Allan Taylor.
BSIP: British Solomon Islands Protectorate.
BSMT: USPS abbreviation for basement.
Bst.: Zeppelin confirmation marking that the mail piece was carried.
Bstmp: abbreviation for backstamp, see: Backstamp.
B. T.: Board of Trade, perfins, or punch perforated on stamps of Great Britain, with a crown.
BT: Bhutan, country code as used by UPU.
Btlln: (Sp.) abbreviation for military force, battalion.
Btonn: paper watermarked with straight parallel lines.
BU: letter-code within cds (q.v.) assigned to Buccament, St. Vincent, BWI (1874-1882), 1871 pop. 88).
Bubble pack: container used for the over-the-counter retail sale of coils of 100 stamps.
Buccleuch find: rare British 1840 stamps found in 1946 in a desk belonging to the Fifth Duke of Buccleuch.
Buchanan: city in Liberia, registration inscription, 1893-1924.
Bucharest: also known as Bucuresti, Romania.
Buchdruck: (Ger.) typography, letterpress.
Buchstabestempel: (Ger.) letter cancel.
Buck, L. W. & Co.: private die match proprietary stamps.
Buck’s Express: local post serviced Newark, N.J and New York City, used labels, 1861
Buck’s Richmond Express: fantasy stamps printed during Civil War period, large range of stamps.
Bucles: (Sp.) curls, used to describe the 1855 watermark instead of lazos.
Bucureste: also known as Bucharest, Romania.
Bud: (Dan., Nor.) bid (at an auction).
Budcentralens Expresspost Hälsingborg: see Hälsingborg – A. Thene Budcentralens Expresspost.
Budliste: (Dan.) bid sheet.
Budweis: now known as Ceske Budejovice, Czechoslovakia.
Buegig: (Ger.) creased.
Buenos Aires: province in Argentina; currency: 8 reales = 1 peso 1771: earliest known postmarks, 1814: independent posts established, 1858, Apr. 29: No.1,1 peso light brown; issued own stamps as part of Argentine Confederation, 1860-73: stamps of Great Britain used, 1860-78: stamps of France used, 1862, Oct. 4: last issue of own stamps, became a province of Argentina.
Buffalo Balloon: see: Balloon Postage, Buffalo.
Buffer: an alkaline reserve added to paper.
Bug: (Ger.) crease.
Buggy whip: plate crack that appears on the 4.9c Transportation coil series stamp.
Bugulma: Russian town in Samara Oblast ca. 160 miles SE of Kazan (now capital of Tatarstan); issued over 20 different local Rural Post stamps (1882-1915), see Zemstvo.
Buguruslan: Russian town in Samara Oblast (now Orenburg Oblast) ca. 95 miles NE of the city of Samara; issued numerous local Rural Post stamps (1879-1915), see Zemstvo.
Buildings Study Group: study of the postal history and stamps of the emergency German 1948 building sets, Germany Philatelic Society, USA.
Buiten Bezit: Dutch Indies overprint for Java and Madura, 1908: outer possessions, to check the use of mail.
Buitos postales: (Sp.) inscription for parcel stamps of Mexico.
Bukovina: local overprint, bogus, Ukrainain, 1993.
Bulgar: (Rom) Bulgarian (adj.).
Bulgár: (Hung.) Bulgarian.
Bulgaria: former Turkish republic in the Balkans, Southeastern Europe; official name of postal administration: Bulgarian Posts currency: 100 stotinki = 1 lev, 100 centimes = 1 franc 1850s: used stamps of Turkey, 1878: “Greater Bulgaria” established, 1879, May 1: No.1, 5 cent black/yellow; first stamps issued, 1879, July 1: joined the UPU, 1884: first postage due stamp issued, 1885: absorbed Eastern Rumelia under rule of the Sultan of Turkey, 1908: independence from Turkey formalized, 1920, June 20: first semipostal stamp issued, 1917: Macedonia issue, but not used until1921, 1918-39: King Boris III, royal issues, 1925: Sunday delivery stamps, first postal tax stamp issued, 1927: first air mail stamp issued, 1942: first official stamp issued, 1946, Sept. 15: stamps of People’s Republic issued; see AEB, AEBA.
Bulgária: (Hung.) Bulgaria.
Bulgaria, forged issues: 1: 1901 War of Independence, Scott 53-54. 2: 1902, Battle of Shipka Pass, Scott 70-72.
Bulgarian Occupation of Romania: an ally of Austria and Germany, 1916: overprint on stamps of Bulgaria for use in occupation of Romania.
Bulgarie: (Bul.) Bulgaria.
Bulgarien: (Dan., Ger., Nor., Swed.) Bulgaria.
Bulgarisk: (Dan., Nor., Swed.) Bulgarian
Bulgarska carska pochta: bogus, Bulgarian Royal Posts, 1964.
Bulharsko: (Czech.) Bulgaria.
Bulharsky: (Czech.) Bulgarian.
Bulk mail: mail that is rated for postage partly by weight and partly by the number of pieces in the mailing; USPS term.
Bulk e-mail: direct mail advertising to large numbers of addresses via e-mail.
Bulk rate: low denomination stamps for use bulk mail.
Bulk rate USA: 1. eagle/shield design, US non-denominated postage stamp, value 10¢, 1991. 2. auto design, US non-denominated stamp, value 10¢, issued March 10, 1995.
Bulldog Post: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Bulle: (Fr.) manila (color).
Bulletin d’expedition: (Fr.) a parcel card that could be delivered to the addressee as a notice of a package’s arrival, upon receipt of the parcel, the recipient signed the parcel card, which was kept by the post office.
Bull, John, Dr.: inscription on Medicine stamp; see Private die proprietary stamps.
Bullock Mail: bullock carts carried mail between Allahabad and Delhi, India, between 1846 and 1904.
Bull’s eye: Aug. 1, 1843: first issue of Brazil consisting of an intricate circular design.
Bull’s eye cancellation: postmark in which the city, state and dates have been placed directly on the center of a stamp or block of stamps; also known as socked on the nose (SON).
Bumbunga Province: bogus Australian secessionist state three hectares north of Adelaide.
Bumper: post office term for cancellation on second, third and fourth class matter.
Bund: (Ger.) federation, federal.
Bund Deutscher Philatelisten (BDPh): (Ger.) Association of German Philatelists.
Bundesmarke: (Ger.) German Federal Republic postage stamp.
Bundespost: (Ger.) German Post Office.
Bundesprüfer: (Ger.) a competent authority recognized as being qualified to certify the identification, authenticity or other status of philatelic materials; now just called Prüfer.
Bundesdruckerei: (Ger.) Berlin, Germany security printer
Bundesrepublik Deutschland: (Ger.) Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany).
Bundi: India Feudatory State; 1894, May-1902: first stamps, 1902-15: stamps of India used, 1915-48: used own stamps, 1939: separate stamps discontinued, 1948-50: used stamps of Rajasthan, 1950, Apr. 1: replaced by stamps of the Republic of India.
Bundi service: India, Bundi officials, 1919.
Bundleware: old time stock of stamps that were bundled and tied together with string.
Bundt: (Dan.) bundle.
Bunt: (Swed.) bundle.
Buntfrankatur: (Ger.) a cover with at least three stamps of different colors.
Bunol: local, Spanish civil war, 1937.
Buque: (Sp.) ship, used in ship markings, thematic.
Buque Minador: (Sp.) civil war naval marking for minelayer.
Buque Prision: (Sp.) prison ship, may be seen in an address.
Bur.: abbreviation for bureau.
Burdo: (Sp.) coarse.
Burdsal, J.S. & Co.: inscription on Medicine stamp; see Private die proprietary stamps.
Bureau: (Fr.) office(s), postoffice(s).
Bureau a l’étranger: (Fr.) post office abroad.
Bureau aux Armées: (Fr.) field post office.
Bureau de Départ: (Fr.) post office of origin.
Bureau de Destination: (Fr.) post office of delivery.
Bureau de Poste: (Fr.) post office.
Bureau de Poste Central: (Fr.) main or head post office.
Bureau d’Ambulants: (Fr.) mobile post office.
Bureau Inexistant: (Fr.) postal term for “No Such Post Office” return to sender.
Bureau International d’Education: Switzerland overprint for International Board of Education.
Bureau International du Travail: Switzerland; 1923-1950: official overprint for International Labor Bureau.
Bureau issues: stamps produced by theUS Bureau of Engraving and Printing.
Bureau Issues Association (BIA): now called the United States Stamp Society.
Bureau Militaire: (Fr.) army post office.
Bureau of Engraving and Printing (BEP): official US printer of currency; 1862, Aug. 29: started by overprinting the Treasury Seal and Treasury Notes; 1894, July 1: started producing US postage stamps.
Bureau precancels: stamps that are precanceled at the B.E.P. in Washington, D.C.
Bureau postal maritime: (Fr.) packet-letter post office.
Bureau print: precancellation applied by the BEP during the production of the stamp for use by post offices that required a large number of precancel stamps.
Bureaux Allemands: (Fr.) German Offices (Abroad).
Bureaux Américain: (Fr.) United States Offices (Abroad).
Bureaux Autrichien: (Fr.) Austrian Offices (Abroad).
Bureaux Britannique: (Fr.) British Offices (Abroad).
Bureaux Chinois: (Fr.) Chinese Offices (Abroad).
Bureaux Espagnols: (Fr.) Spanish Offices (Abroad).
Bureaux étranger: (Fr.) overseas post offices.
Bureaux Français: (Fr.) French Offices (Abroad).
Bureaux Grec: (Fr.) Greek Offices (Abroad).
Bureaux Hongrois: (Fr.) Hungarian Offices (Abroad).
Bureaux Indien: (Fr.) Indian Offices (Abroad).
Bureaux Italiens: (Fr.) Italian Offices (Abroad).
Bureaux Japonais: (Fr.) Japanese Offices (Abroad).
Bureaux Polonais: (Fr.) Polish Offices (Abroad).
Bureaux Russes: (Fr.) Russian Offices (Abroad).
Burelado: (Sp.) see: Burelage.
Burelage, Burelé, Burlage: (Fr., Sp.) a fine overall network of dots or lines printed on the surface of stamps in addition to the stamps design; was usually done to discourage counterfeiting. Burg: (Ger.) castle, as a theme or topic.
Burelering: (Nor.) see: Burelage.
Burgdorf: local airmail, Switzerland, 1913.
Burgenland: 1945: German stamps overprinted diagonally “Osterreich” for use in Burgenland.
Burgos: Spanish province; local overprint, Nationalist and Republican forces, 1936-37.
Burhans, D. & Co.: private die match proprietary stamps.
Buriatia: bogus Russian Federation Republic; local overprint and stamps, 1996?
Burilagem: (Port.) see: Burelage.
Burin: tool used by stamp engravers to engrave in steel.
Burjasot: local, Spanish civil war, Republican forces, 1937.
Burkina Faso: formerly French colony of Upper Volta, Northwestern Africa; currency: 100 centimes = 1 franc 1919: French territory of Upper Volta made a separate colony, 1920: No.1, 1 centime brown-violet; first stamps were Upper Senegal and Niger overprinted Haute-Volta (Upper Volta); first postage due stamp issued, 1928: issued own stamps, 1933: divided among French Sudan, Ivory Coast, and Niger Territory, 1958, Dec.11: named Upper Volta, 1959: stamps issued as Republic of Haute-Volta, 1963, Feb.1: first official stamp, 1961, Mar. 4: first air mail stamp, 1961, Apr. 7: first semipostal stamp, 1963, March 29: joined the UPU, 1984, May 23: first air mail stamps with new name, 1984, Aug. 4: name changed to Burkino Faso, “country of incorruptible men”, 1984, Nov. 21: first regular issue stamps issued as Burkino Faso.
Burma: southeast Asia, south of China, part of British Indian Empire; now named Myanmar; currency: 12 pies = 1 anna, 100 pyas = 1 kyat (1953), 16 annas = 1 rupee 1826-Apr.1, 1937: part of British India, 1854, Oct.: stamps of India used for first time, 1887: river steamer temporary post offices established, 1937, April 1: No.1, 3 pies slate; stamps of India (1926-36) overprinted “Burma” when it became part of the British Commonwealth, 1937: first official stamps issued, 1938: Burma stamps, British Administration, 1943-45: Japanese occupation overprints and issues, 1942, May: Burmese emblem, the peacock, used as overprint during Japanese occupation, 1941-45: Stamps of India used by Imperial troops, 1947, Oct.: interim government overprint, 1948, Jan. 4: became Union of Burma as an independent nation, 1989: name changed to Myanmar, 1990: first stamps issued as Myanmar.
Burma, Japanese Occupation: see Burma.
Burma, Japanese Occupation, forged issues: 1: 1943 farmer plowing, Scott 2N30-2N37. 2: 1943 water carrier, Scott 2N41-2N43. 3: 1943 Elephant with log, Scott 2N44-2N48. 4: 1943 Mandalay Watchtower, Scott 2N49-2N50.
Burnett, Joseph & Co.: inscription on Medicine stamp; see Private die proprietary stamps.
Burnishing: removal of portion of an engraved design from a die, plate, or transfer roll; usually done to remove imperfections or re-work a design.
Burnham Post: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Burnley Chamber of Commerce: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Burr: uneven raised edge of surplus metal from engraver’s tool, prints as a flaw.
Burriana: local, Spanish civil war, Republican forces, 1937.
Burritt, Elihu: (1810-1879) proponent of Ocean Penny Postage as a drastic reduction in an established set of postal rates in use by many different nations.
Burrus, Maurice: stamp collector who is depicted on a set of Liechtenstein 1968 stamps.
Burse Express Co.: local parcel firm serviced Brooklyn, N. Y. and New York City.
Bursztynowy: (Pol.) amber (color).
Burundi: UN Trusteeship territory (Ruanda-Urundi) administered by Belgium, Central Africa; currency: 100 centimes = 1 franc 1899-1914: as Urundi, part of German East Africa, 1914-62: administered by Belgium under a United Nations mandate, 1953: overprint “Royaume du Burundi” on Ruanda-Urundi (1959-61), 1962, July 1: No.1, 25 centimes green/orange; became independent nation, 1962, Sep.27: Burundi stamps issued, 1963, Feb.15: first semipostal stamp issued, 1963, April 6: joined the UPU, 1964, July 2: first air mail stamp issued, 1966, Nov. 28: military coup overthrew monarchy, declared a republic, 1967: “Republique du Burundi” overprinted on Royaume du Burundi issues (Scott 111, 113, 116, 118-25, 141-52, 154-56), 1967: first stamp with inscription of Republique du Burundi.
Burutu: city in Southern Nigeria; 1896-1899: Royal Niger Company handstamp used on stamps of Great Britain.
Buryatia, Republic of: illegal labels, purporting to be stamps, as per Jan. 14, 2002, Russian Federation report to the UPU; not valid for postage.
Bury’s City Post: U.S. local post, New York, N.Y., 1857.
Busch, Charles: private die match proprietary stamps.
Bushehr: formerly Bushire, Iran.
Bushire: Persian Gulf port; 1915, Aug. 8-Oct. 16: British occupation now known as Bushehr, Iran.
“Bushire under British Occupation”: overprint on stamps of Iran (1911-13). 1914-15: “Bushire under British Occupation” Persian stamps overprint.
Bush’s Brooklyn City Express: U.S. local post, Brooklyn, N.Y., 1848 (?).
Business Facilities: United Kingdom strike local post, 1971.
Business Reply Mail (BRM): specially printed postcards, envelopes and labels that may be mailed without postage prepayment; postage and fees are collected when the mail is delivered back to the original sender; usually a license and deposit are required.
Business school stamps used by business colleges in their courses to demonstrate business practices.
Bus parcel stamps: private labels issued by bus firms to prepay freight charges on parcels carried on their routes.
Bussahir: India Feudatory State, Punjab; 1895, June 20: first local stamps, 1901, Mar.31: cancelled obsolete stamps (Rampur 19 MA 1900) sold to stamp trade, 1901, Mar.31: stamps of British India used. 1950, Apr. 1: replaced by stamps of the Republic of India.
Bussfraktmärken (Soumi): (Swed.) bus parcel stamps (Finland).
Busspaket: (Fin.) Finland parcel post.
Busta: (It.) cover, an envelope or a postally used envelope or one with a postal cancellation.
Busta primo giorno di emissione: (It.) first day of emission.
Bustees: India States term for hamlets.
Butler & Carpenter: engraver and printer of US revenue stamps.
Butlin’s Holidays For a King: inscription, unissued Great Britain cinderella by David Horry, 2001.
Butterfield Overland Mail: service began Sept. 15, 1858, between St. Louis and San Francisco, taken over by Wells Fargo.
Butterflies of Victoria: butterfly-like cancel; 1850-52: used for the first issues of Victoria.
Button: U.S. Navy code name during WW II for Espritu Santo Island, New Hebrides Islands.
Buu-chinh, Buu-Chinn: Vietnam.
Buy bid: practice whereby a bidder instructs an auctioneer or auction agent to purchase a lot regardless of the ultimate hammer or final price; rarely accepted by auction houses since two “buy bids” on same lot would create chaos.
Buyer’s premium: auction term for percentage premium added to the final price of a lot, and retained by the auctioneer as part of the commission for selling the lot; also known as buyer’s fee or the tip.
Buy prices: price a buyer is willing to pay for certain stamps or other philatelic items.
Büyük Britanya: (Turk.) Great Britain.
Buzon: (Sp.) posting or mail box.
Buzones columnas: (Sp.) pillar, or mailing boxes in streets, as opposed to those in post offices.
Buzones tranvias: (Sp.) posting boxes on Madrid, Barcelona and Bilbao tramcars.
Buzones vapores: (Sp.) posting boxes on ships in regular service between the Spanish mainland and the Balearic Islands of Ceuta, Melilla, and the Canary Islands.
Buzulul: Russian town in Samara Oblast (now Orenburg Oblast) ca. 90 miles ESE of the city of Samara; issued over 20 different local Rural Post stamps (1876-1915), see Zemstvo.
B V C C A R I: overprint; 1918: naval victory commemorated on Fiume stamps.
B. V. I.: British Virgin Islands.
BW: 1: abbreviation for “bankwissel” bank draft revenue overprint of Orange Free State; 2: Botswana, country code as used by UPU.
B.W.: Bahnoff Warschau (Ger.) Warsaw railway station.
B. W. & Co.: Bradbury, Wilkinson, stamp printers, Great Britain.
B. W. A.: British West Africa.
B W I: British West Indies.
B W I S C: British West Indies Study Circle, Great Britain.
B.X.Y. Express Co.: Brigham Young and Hiram Kimball received a mail contract with stations from Independence, Mo. to Salt Lake City, 1857; no notations are known from this mail service.
By: (Nor.) 1. to bid (at an auction). 2. town, city.
BY: Belarus, country code as used by UPU.
Byam, Carlton & Co.: private die match proprietary stamps.
Byde: (Dan.) to bid.
Bydgoszcz: formerly Bromberg, Poland.
Byezhetsk: Russian town in Twer (Russ. Tver) Oblast; issued over 30 different local Rural Post stamps (1872-1894, the local post being suppressed in 1896), see Zemstvo.
Byelorussia: see Belarus.
Bypass mail: mail that does not require postal preparation before outgoing distribution.
Bypost: (Dan., Nor.) local post
By Post letters: mail picked up by post riders on the London-Edinburgh post route in the 1630s; see:Allen, Ralph.
By Post stamps: local stamps issued by Danish and Norwegian towns in the 19th century.
Byrd: Richard E. Byrd Antarctic Exploration, 1933US stamp commemorates his flights over South Polar regions.
Bytown: now known as Ottawa, Canada.
Bz: (Ger.) catalogue abbreviation for bronze overprint or surcharge.
BZ: Belize, country code as used by UPU.

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